Limits...
A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina.

Liew TS, Vermeulen JJ, Marzuki ME, Schilthuizen M - Zookeys (2014)

Bottom Line: We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence.We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n.All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands ; Institute Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands ; Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia ; Rimba, 4 Jalan 1/9D, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Spiral lines on the shell surface are shown in, from top to bottom, 100 × magnification under the dissecting microscope, 500 × and 2000 × magnification under scanning electron microscope. A shell with both thick and thin spiral lines B shell with only thin spiral lines. Each corresponding image in A and B is at the same scale.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3974427&req=5

Figure 12: Spiral lines on the shell surface are shown in, from top to bottom, 100 × magnification under the dissecting microscope, 500 × and 2000 × magnification under scanning electron microscope. A shell with both thick and thin spiral lines B shell with only thin spiral lines. Each corresponding image in A and B is at the same scale.

Mentions: After the six views of a shell were determined as described (Figure 1), the shell whorls were described for each of six major parts, according to the shell ontogeny order: (1) apex–protoconch and the first teleoconch (Figure 2A, and 3); (2) apical spire–the whole teleoconch except the last 1 1/2 whorls before the constriction (Figure 2B, and 4); (3) basal spire–the last 1 1/2 whorls before the constriction (Figure 2B, and 5); (4) constriction–the narrowest transitional part of the whorl between spire and tuba (Figure 2A, 6, and 7); (5) tuba whorl–teleoconch after the constriction (Figure 2A, and 8); and (6) aperture and peristome (Figure 2A, 9, and 10). The first three parts constitute the shell spire, for which size and shape were quantified from the left lateral view. The height, width and number of whorls of the shell were measured and counted from the spire (Figure 11A, and B). In addition to the description of the general shell form, we recorded the shell surface ornamentations, namely, (7) fine spiral striation (Figure 12), and (8) distinct radial ribs (Figures 2A and 13).


A cybertaxonomic revision of the micro-landsnail genus Plectostoma Adam (Mollusca, Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae), from Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Indochina.

Liew TS, Vermeulen JJ, Marzuki ME, Schilthuizen M - Zookeys (2014)

Spiral lines on the shell surface are shown in, from top to bottom, 100 × magnification under the dissecting microscope, 500 × and 2000 × magnification under scanning electron microscope. A shell with both thick and thin spiral lines B shell with only thin spiral lines. Each corresponding image in A and B is at the same scale.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons-attribution
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3974427&req=5

Figure 12: Spiral lines on the shell surface are shown in, from top to bottom, 100 × magnification under the dissecting microscope, 500 × and 2000 × magnification under scanning electron microscope. A shell with both thick and thin spiral lines B shell with only thin spiral lines. Each corresponding image in A and B is at the same scale.
Mentions: After the six views of a shell were determined as described (Figure 1), the shell whorls were described for each of six major parts, according to the shell ontogeny order: (1) apex–protoconch and the first teleoconch (Figure 2A, and 3); (2) apical spire–the whole teleoconch except the last 1 1/2 whorls before the constriction (Figure 2B, and 4); (3) basal spire–the last 1 1/2 whorls before the constriction (Figure 2B, and 5); (4) constriction–the narrowest transitional part of the whorl between spire and tuba (Figure 2A, 6, and 7); (5) tuba whorl–teleoconch after the constriction (Figure 2A, and 8); and (6) aperture and peristome (Figure 2A, 9, and 10). The first three parts constitute the shell spire, for which size and shape were quantified from the left lateral view. The height, width and number of whorls of the shell were measured and counted from the spire (Figure 11A, and B). In addition to the description of the general shell form, we recorded the shell surface ornamentations, namely, (7) fine spiral striation (Figure 12), and (8) distinct radial ribs (Figures 2A and 13).

Bottom Line: We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence.We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n.All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Naturalis Biodiversity Center, P.O. Box 9517, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands ; Institute Biology Leiden, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands ; Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia ; Rimba, 4 Jalan 1/9D, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Plectostoma is a micro land snail restricted to limestone outcrops in Southeast Asia. Plectostoma was previously classified as a subgenus of Opisthostoma because of the deviation from regular coiling in many species in both taxa. This paper is the first of a two-part revision of the genus Plectostoma, and includes all non-Borneo species. In the present paper, we examined 214 collection samples of 31 species, and obtained 62 references, 290 pictures, and 155 3D-models of 29 Plectostoma species and 51 COI sequences of 19 species. To work with such a variety of taxonomic data, and then to represent it in an integrated, scaleable and accessible manner, we adopted up-to-date cybertaxonomic tools. All the taxonomic information, such as references, classification, species descriptions, specimen images, genetic data, and distribution data, were tagged and linked with cyber tools and web servers (e.g. Lifedesks, Google Earth, and Barcoding of Life Database). We elevated Plectostoma from subgenus to genus level based on morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. We revised the existing 21 Plectostoma species and described 10 new species, namely, P. dindingensis sp. n., P. mengaburensis sp. n., P. whitteni sp. n., P. kayiani sp. n., P. davisoni sp. n., P. relauensis sp. n., P. kubuensis sp. n., P. tohchinyawi sp. n., P. tenggekensis sp. n., and P. ikanensis sp. n. All the synthesised, semantic-tagged, and linked taxonomic information is made freely and publicly available online.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus