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Aetiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal twin study in adolescents and adults.

Bolhuis K, McAdams TA, Monzani B, Gregory AM, Mataix-Cols D, Stringaris A, Eley TC - Psychol Med (2013)

Bottom Line: This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is commonly co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is unknown whether depression is a functional consequence of OCD or whether these disorders share a common genetic aetiology. This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.

Method: Data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins and siblings (n = 2651; Genesis 12-19 study) and from a cross-sectional sample of adult twins (n = 4920). The longitudinal phenotypic associations between OCD symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lag model. Multivariate twin analyses were performed to explore the genetic and environmental contributions to the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Results: In the longitudinal phenotypic analyses, OCS at time 1 (wave 2 of the Genesis 12-19 study) predicted depressive symptoms at time 2 (wave 3 of the Genesis 12-19 study) to a similar extent to which depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted OCS at time 2. Cross-sectional twin analyses in both samples indicated that common genetic factors explained 52-65% of the phenotypic correlation between OCS and depressive symptoms. The proportion of the phenotypic correlation due to common non-shared environmental factors was considerably smaller (35%). In the adolescent sample, the longitudinal association between OCS at time 1 and subsequent depressive symptoms was accounted for by the genetic association between OCS and depressive symptoms at time 1. There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Results from the Cholesky decomposition examining the longitudinal associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent sample. The values presented are the standardized unsquared path estimates, with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. (a) Associations between additive genetic factors (A) between the two traits. (b) Associations between shared environmental factors (C) between the two traits. (c) Path estimates of non-shared environmental factors (E).
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fig04: Results from the Cholesky decomposition examining the longitudinal associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent sample. The values presented are the standardized unsquared path estimates, with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. (a) Associations between additive genetic factors (A) between the two traits. (b) Associations between shared environmental factors (C) between the two traits. (c) Path estimates of non-shared environmental factors (E).

Mentions: The longitudinal genetic relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms was explored in the adolescent sample using a multivariate Cholesky decomposition with four variables. A model of OCS at time 1 predicting later depressive symptoms was fitted, accounting for depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 2 (Fig. 1). An ACE model with scalars on OCS at time 1 and depressive symptoms at both time points provided the best fit (online Supplementary Table S5). Fig. 4 shows the results of the Cholesky decomposition. Fig. 4a shows the additive genetic factors that explain the longitudinal association between OCS and depressive symptoms. Fig. 4b, c shows to what extent the longitudinal association between OCS and depressive symptoms can be explained by overlap in shared and non-shared environmental factors, respectively.Fig. 4.


Aetiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal twin study in adolescents and adults.

Bolhuis K, McAdams TA, Monzani B, Gregory AM, Mataix-Cols D, Stringaris A, Eley TC - Psychol Med (2013)

Results from the Cholesky decomposition examining the longitudinal associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent sample. The values presented are the standardized unsquared path estimates, with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. (a) Associations between additive genetic factors (A) between the two traits. (b) Associations between shared environmental factors (C) between the two traits. (c) Path estimates of non-shared environmental factors (E).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3959155&req=5

fig04: Results from the Cholesky decomposition examining the longitudinal associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent sample. The values presented are the standardized unsquared path estimates, with 95% confidence intervals in parentheses. (a) Associations between additive genetic factors (A) between the two traits. (b) Associations between shared environmental factors (C) between the two traits. (c) Path estimates of non-shared environmental factors (E).
Mentions: The longitudinal genetic relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms was explored in the adolescent sample using a multivariate Cholesky decomposition with four variables. A model of OCS at time 1 predicting later depressive symptoms was fitted, accounting for depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 2 (Fig. 1). An ACE model with scalars on OCS at time 1 and depressive symptoms at both time points provided the best fit (online Supplementary Table S5). Fig. 4 shows the results of the Cholesky decomposition. Fig. 4a shows the additive genetic factors that explain the longitudinal association between OCS and depressive symptoms. Fig. 4b, c shows to what extent the longitudinal association between OCS and depressive symptoms can be explained by overlap in shared and non-shared environmental factors, respectively.Fig. 4.

Bottom Line: This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is commonly co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is unknown whether depression is a functional consequence of OCD or whether these disorders share a common genetic aetiology. This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.

Method: Data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins and siblings (n = 2651; Genesis 12-19 study) and from a cross-sectional sample of adult twins (n = 4920). The longitudinal phenotypic associations between OCD symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lag model. Multivariate twin analyses were performed to explore the genetic and environmental contributions to the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Results: In the longitudinal phenotypic analyses, OCS at time 1 (wave 2 of the Genesis 12-19 study) predicted depressive symptoms at time 2 (wave 3 of the Genesis 12-19 study) to a similar extent to which depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted OCS at time 2. Cross-sectional twin analyses in both samples indicated that common genetic factors explained 52-65% of the phenotypic correlation between OCS and depressive symptoms. The proportion of the phenotypic correlation due to common non-shared environmental factors was considerably smaller (35%). In the adolescent sample, the longitudinal association between OCS at time 1 and subsequent depressive symptoms was accounted for by the genetic association between OCS and depressive symptoms at time 1. There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus