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Aetiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal twin study in adolescents and adults.

Bolhuis K, McAdams TA, Monzani B, Gregory AM, Mataix-Cols D, Stringaris A, Eley TC - Psychol Med (2013)

Bottom Line: This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is commonly co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is unknown whether depression is a functional consequence of OCD or whether these disorders share a common genetic aetiology. This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.

Method: Data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins and siblings (n = 2651; Genesis 12-19 study) and from a cross-sectional sample of adult twins (n = 4920). The longitudinal phenotypic associations between OCD symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lag model. Multivariate twin analyses were performed to explore the genetic and environmental contributions to the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Results: In the longitudinal phenotypic analyses, OCS at time 1 (wave 2 of the Genesis 12-19 study) predicted depressive symptoms at time 2 (wave 3 of the Genesis 12-19 study) to a similar extent to which depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted OCS at time 2. Cross-sectional twin analyses in both samples indicated that common genetic factors explained 52-65% of the phenotypic correlation between OCS and depressive symptoms. The proportion of the phenotypic correlation due to common non-shared environmental factors was considerably smaller (35%). In the adolescent sample, the longitudinal association between OCS at time 1 and subsequent depressive symptoms was accounted for by the genetic association between OCS and depressive symptoms at time 1. There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cross-lag model of the standardized cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypic associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent twin sample. The longitudinal path coefficients were controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 1, and for sibling relatedness. Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
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fig02: Cross-lag model of the standardized cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypic associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent twin sample. The longitudinal path coefficients were controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 1, and for sibling relatedness. Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.

Mentions: The cross-lag model of the longitudinal associations between OCS and depressive symptoms (Fig. 2) shows that the path coefficient from OCS at time 1 to depressive symptoms at time 2 (β = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.16) is similar to the pathway from depressive symptoms at time 1 to OCS at time 2 (β = 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.15). Within-trait longitudinal, and cross-trait within-time pathways were all substantial (range β = 0.39–0.51).Fig. 2.


Aetiological overlap between obsessive-compulsive and depressive symptoms: a longitudinal twin study in adolescents and adults.

Bolhuis K, McAdams TA, Monzani B, Gregory AM, Mataix-Cols D, Stringaris A, Eley TC - Psychol Med (2013)

Cross-lag model of the standardized cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypic associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent twin sample. The longitudinal path coefficients were controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 1, and for sibling relatedness. Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3959155&req=5

fig02: Cross-lag model of the standardized cross-sectional and longitudinal phenotypic associations between obsessive–compulsive disorder symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms in the adolescent twin sample. The longitudinal path coefficients were controlled for the effects of depressive symptoms at time 1 and OCS at time 1, and for sibling relatedness. Values in parentheses are 95% confidence intervals. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01.
Mentions: The cross-lag model of the longitudinal associations between OCS and depressive symptoms (Fig. 2) shows that the path coefficient from OCS at time 1 to depressive symptoms at time 2 (β = 0.08, 95% CI 0.02–0.16) is similar to the pathway from depressive symptoms at time 1 to OCS at time 2 (β = 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.15). Within-trait longitudinal, and cross-trait within-time pathways were all substantial (range β = 0.39–0.51).Fig. 2.

Bottom Line: This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

ABSTRACT

Background: Depression is commonly co-morbid with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, it is unknown whether depression is a functional consequence of OCD or whether these disorders share a common genetic aetiology. This longitudinal twin study compared these two hypotheses.

Method: Data were drawn from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins and siblings (n = 2651; Genesis 12-19 study) and from a cross-sectional sample of adult twins (n = 4920). The longitudinal phenotypic associations between OCD symptoms (OCS) and depressive symptoms were examined using a cross-lag model. Multivariate twin analyses were performed to explore the genetic and environmental contributions to the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Results: In the longitudinal phenotypic analyses, OCS at time 1 (wave 2 of the Genesis 12-19 study) predicted depressive symptoms at time 2 (wave 3 of the Genesis 12-19 study) to a similar extent to which depressive symptoms at time 1 predicted OCS at time 2. Cross-sectional twin analyses in both samples indicated that common genetic factors explained 52-65% of the phenotypic correlation between OCS and depressive symptoms. The proportion of the phenotypic correlation due to common non-shared environmental factors was considerably smaller (35%). In the adolescent sample, the longitudinal association between OCS at time 1 and subsequent depressive symptoms was accounted for by the genetic association between OCS and depressive symptoms at time 1. There was no significant environmental association between OCS and later depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: The present findings show that OCS and depressive symptoms co-occur primarily due to shared genetic factors and suggest that genetic, rather than environmental, effects account for the longitudinal relationship between OCS and depressive symptoms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus