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Gait analysis methods: an overview of wearable and non-wearable systems, highlighting clinical applications.

Muro-de-la-Herran A, Garcia-Zapirain B, Mendez-Zorrilla A - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information.Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems.An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeustoTech-Life Unit, DeustoTech Institute of Technology, University of Deusto, Bilbao 48007, Spain. alvaro.muro@deusto.es.

ABSTRACT
This article presents a review of the methods used in recognition and analysis of the human gait from three different approaches: image processing, floor sensors and sensors placed on the body. Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information. Firstly, an introduction of the key gait parameters and semi-subjective methods is presented. Secondly, technologies and studies on the different objective methods are reviewed. Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems. An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Instrumented shoe from Smartxa Project: (a) inertial measurement unit; (b) flexible goniometer; and (c) pressure sensors which are situated inside the insole.
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f7-sensors-14-03362: Instrumented shoe from Smartxa Project: (a) inertial measurement unit; (b) flexible goniometer; and (c) pressure sensors which are situated inside the insole.

Mentions: This type of sensor is widely used in wearable gait analysis systems by integrating them into instrumented shoes (Figure 7) such as those developed in [52], or into baropodometric insoles [53,54]. Howell et al.'s study demonstrated that the GRF measurements obtained with an insole containing 12 capacitive sensors showed a high correlation to the simultaneous measurements from a clinical motion analysis laboratory [55]. Another innovative system was created by Lincoln et al [56], using reflected light intensity to detect the proximity of a reflective material, and was sensitive to normal and shear loads.


Gait analysis methods: an overview of wearable and non-wearable systems, highlighting clinical applications.

Muro-de-la-Herran A, Garcia-Zapirain B, Mendez-Zorrilla A - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Instrumented shoe from Smartxa Project: (a) inertial measurement unit; (b) flexible goniometer; and (c) pressure sensors which are situated inside the insole.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958266&req=5

f7-sensors-14-03362: Instrumented shoe from Smartxa Project: (a) inertial measurement unit; (b) flexible goniometer; and (c) pressure sensors which are situated inside the insole.
Mentions: This type of sensor is widely used in wearable gait analysis systems by integrating them into instrumented shoes (Figure 7) such as those developed in [52], or into baropodometric insoles [53,54]. Howell et al.'s study demonstrated that the GRF measurements obtained with an insole containing 12 capacitive sensors showed a high correlation to the simultaneous measurements from a clinical motion analysis laboratory [55]. Another innovative system was created by Lincoln et al [56], using reflected light intensity to detect the proximity of a reflective material, and was sensitive to normal and shear loads.

Bottom Line: Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information.Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems.An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeustoTech-Life Unit, DeustoTech Institute of Technology, University of Deusto, Bilbao 48007, Spain. alvaro.muro@deusto.es.

ABSTRACT
This article presents a review of the methods used in recognition and analysis of the human gait from three different approaches: image processing, floor sensors and sensors placed on the body. Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information. Firstly, an introduction of the key gait parameters and semi-subjective methods is presented. Secondly, technologies and studies on the different objective methods are reviewed. Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems. An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

No MeSH data available.