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Gait analysis methods: an overview of wearable and non-wearable systems, highlighting clinical applications.

Muro-de-la-Herran A, Garcia-Zapirain B, Mendez-Zorrilla A - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information.Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems.An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeustoTech-Life Unit, DeustoTech Institute of Technology, University of Deusto, Bilbao 48007, Spain. alvaro.muro@deusto.es.

ABSTRACT
This article presents a review of the methods used in recognition and analysis of the human gait from three different approaches: image processing, floor sensors and sensors placed on the body. Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information. Firstly, an introduction of the key gait parameters and semi-subjective methods is presented. Secondly, technologies and studies on the different objective methods are reviewed. Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems. An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

No MeSH data available.


Example of NWS system: BTS GaitLab configuration. (1) infrared videocameras; (2) inertial sensor; (3) GRF measurement walkway; (4) wireless EMG; (5) workstation; (6) video recording system; (7) TV screen; (8) control station. Reproduced with permission from BTS Bioingenieering.
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f11-sensors-14-03362: Example of NWS system: BTS GaitLab configuration. (1) infrared videocameras; (2) inertial sensor; (3) GRF measurement walkway; (4) wireless EMG; (5) workstation; (6) video recording system; (7) TV screen; (8) control station. Reproduced with permission from BTS Bioingenieering.

Mentions: There are many commercial WS systems and NWS gait analysis laboratories which use different combinations of the abovementioned sensors and technologies. Some examples of NWS systems situated and calibrated in laboratory or clinical environments, such as the one depicted in Figure 11, are CONTEMPLAS: Clinical gait analysis based on a walkway [67], Tekscan: Pressure Mapping [68], GRAIL: Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab, from Motek Medical [69] and BTS GAITLAB [70].


Gait analysis methods: an overview of wearable and non-wearable systems, highlighting clinical applications.

Muro-de-la-Herran A, Garcia-Zapirain B, Mendez-Zorrilla A - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Example of NWS system: BTS GaitLab configuration. (1) infrared videocameras; (2) inertial sensor; (3) GRF measurement walkway; (4) wireless EMG; (5) workstation; (6) video recording system; (7) TV screen; (8) control station. Reproduced with permission from BTS Bioingenieering.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958266&req=5

f11-sensors-14-03362: Example of NWS system: BTS GaitLab configuration. (1) infrared videocameras; (2) inertial sensor; (3) GRF measurement walkway; (4) wireless EMG; (5) workstation; (6) video recording system; (7) TV screen; (8) control station. Reproduced with permission from BTS Bioingenieering.
Mentions: There are many commercial WS systems and NWS gait analysis laboratories which use different combinations of the abovementioned sensors and technologies. Some examples of NWS systems situated and calibrated in laboratory or clinical environments, such as the one depicted in Figure 11, are CONTEMPLAS: Clinical gait analysis based on a walkway [67], Tekscan: Pressure Mapping [68], GRAIL: Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab, from Motek Medical [69] and BTS GAITLAB [70].

Bottom Line: Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information.Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems.An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: DeustoTech-Life Unit, DeustoTech Institute of Technology, University of Deusto, Bilbao 48007, Spain. alvaro.muro@deusto.es.

ABSTRACT
This article presents a review of the methods used in recognition and analysis of the human gait from three different approaches: image processing, floor sensors and sensors placed on the body. Progress in new technologies has led the development of a series of devices and techniques which allow for objective evaluation, making measurements more efficient and effective and providing specialists with reliable information. Firstly, an introduction of the key gait parameters and semi-subjective methods is presented. Secondly, technologies and studies on the different objective methods are reviewed. Finally, based on the latest research, the characteristics of each method are discussed. 40% of the reviewed articles published in late 2012 and 2013 were related to non-wearable systems, 37.5% presented inertial sensor-based systems, and the remaining 22.5% corresponded to other wearable systems. An increasing number of research works demonstrate that various parameters such as precision, conformability, usability or transportability have indicated that the portable systems based on body sensors are promising methods for gait analysis.

No MeSH data available.