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Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

Vilajosana X, Tuset-Peiro P, Vazquez-Gallego F, Alonso-Zarate J, Alonso L - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability.Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off.In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) C/Roc Boronat 117, Barcelona 08018, Spain. xvilajosana@uoc.edu.

ABSTRACT
Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Measured current draw on a TelosB mote. (a) Idle listen and off slots; (b) transmission and reception slots.
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f5-sensors-14-02663: Measured current draw on a TelosB mote. (a) Idle listen and off slots; (b) transmission and reception slots.

Mentions: A key consideration is to ensure that the TSCH MAC layer minimizes the radio duty cycle and also the overall platform energy consumption. Figure 5a shows the measured energy consumption of a mote during an inactive and idle listen slot. In turn, Figure 5b shows the measured energy consumed by a mote during a active slot, either transmitting or receiving a packet of 127 bytes in length. In both experiments, the current flow has been obtained by measuring the voltage drop across a 1-Ω shunt series resistor with an oscilloscope. It is important to note the importance of using the adequate low-power modes of the radio and microcontroller when there is nothing to be done during the slot or between actions in a slot. Key considerations when selecting a microcontroller are its ability to maintain a precise timer running in the lowest energy model that it is able to wake up the microcontroller and a ramp up time under 1 ms of the microcontroller when transitioning from deep sleep mode to normal run mode operation. To avoid timer impreciseness, a stable 32,768 Hz crystal should be used as the time source for the low-power timer peripheral. These considerations are fundamental to be able to implement TSCH MAC layers in off-the-shelf microcontrollers. As can be seen in Figure 5, inactive periods show an energy consumption close to 0 mA, as the radio and microcontroller are in deep sleep mode.


Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

Vilajosana X, Tuset-Peiro P, Vazquez-Gallego F, Alonso-Zarate J, Alonso L - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Measured current draw on a TelosB mote. (a) Idle listen and off slots; (b) transmission and reception slots.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958241&req=5

f5-sensors-14-02663: Measured current draw on a TelosB mote. (a) Idle listen and off slots; (b) transmission and reception slots.
Mentions: A key consideration is to ensure that the TSCH MAC layer minimizes the radio duty cycle and also the overall platform energy consumption. Figure 5a shows the measured energy consumption of a mote during an inactive and idle listen slot. In turn, Figure 5b shows the measured energy consumed by a mote during a active slot, either transmitting or receiving a packet of 127 bytes in length. In both experiments, the current flow has been obtained by measuring the voltage drop across a 1-Ω shunt series resistor with an oscilloscope. It is important to note the importance of using the adequate low-power modes of the radio and microcontroller when there is nothing to be done during the slot or between actions in a slot. Key considerations when selecting a microcontroller are its ability to maintain a precise timer running in the lowest energy model that it is able to wake up the microcontroller and a ramp up time under 1 ms of the microcontroller when transitioning from deep sleep mode to normal run mode operation. To avoid timer impreciseness, a stable 32,768 Hz crystal should be used as the time source for the low-power timer peripheral. These considerations are fundamental to be able to implement TSCH MAC layers in off-the-shelf microcontrollers. As can be seen in Figure 5, inactive periods show an energy consumption close to 0 mA, as the radio and microcontroller are in deep sleep mode.

Bottom Line: Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability.Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off.In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) C/Roc Boronat 117, Barcelona 08018, Spain. xvilajosana@uoc.edu.

ABSTRACT
Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus