Limits...
Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

Vilajosana X, Tuset-Peiro P, Vazquez-Gallego F, Alonso-Zarate J, Alonso L - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability.Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off.In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) C/Roc Boronat 117, Barcelona 08018, Spain. xvilajosana@uoc.edu.

ABSTRACT
Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

No MeSH data available.


IEEE 802.15.4e time slot template. This defines the sequence of actions that take place in a time slot in both the sender and receiver nodes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958241&req=5

f2-sensors-14-02663: IEEE 802.15.4e time slot template. This defines the sequence of actions that take place in a time slot in both the sender and receiver nodes.

Mentions: When implementing TSCH, several requirements need to be met by the hardware and the software components integrating the target platform. Mandatory requirements include the ability to control when a first bit of a packet leaves the radio, as well as to be able to detect when the first bit of an incoming packet reaches the transceiver. This requirement enables to timestamp incoming packets and determine the clock drift of the current node with respect to its parent, provided that transmission and reception occur at well-known time slots (see Figure 2). The software and hardware are closely related and specific timers with capture registers become very useful when connected to the pins of the radio, thus enabling automatic time stamping. As nodes must be aligned to a time source neighbor, source addresses need to be verified before synchronization to avoid alignment with other network siblings. The IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH suggests the use of different guard times to tolerate certain misalignment at the cost of a higher duty cycle. The IETF 6TiSCH working group recently defined some default values for guard times that enable to keep the network synchronized without a considerable synchronization overhead [15]. These values are typically close to a 1-ms guard time.


Standardized low-power wireless communication technologies for distributed sensing applications.

Vilajosana X, Tuset-Peiro P, Vazquez-Gallego F, Alonso-Zarate J, Alonso L - Sensors (Basel) (2014)

IEEE 802.15.4e time slot template. This defines the sequence of actions that take place in a time slot in both the sender and receiver nodes.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958241&req=5

f2-sensors-14-02663: IEEE 802.15.4e time slot template. This defines the sequence of actions that take place in a time slot in both the sender and receiver nodes.
Mentions: When implementing TSCH, several requirements need to be met by the hardware and the software components integrating the target platform. Mandatory requirements include the ability to control when a first bit of a packet leaves the radio, as well as to be able to detect when the first bit of an incoming packet reaches the transceiver. This requirement enables to timestamp incoming packets and determine the clock drift of the current node with respect to its parent, provided that transmission and reception occur at well-known time slots (see Figure 2). The software and hardware are closely related and specific timers with capture registers become very useful when connected to the pins of the radio, thus enabling automatic time stamping. As nodes must be aligned to a time source neighbor, source addresses need to be verified before synchronization to avoid alignment with other network siblings. The IEEE 802.15.4e TSCH suggests the use of different guard times to tolerate certain misalignment at the cost of a higher duty cycle. The IETF 6TiSCH working group recently defined some default values for guard times that enable to keep the network synchronized without a considerable synchronization overhead [15]. These values are typically close to a 1-ms guard time.

Bottom Line: Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability.Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off.In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Internet Interdisciplinary Institute (IN3), Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) C/Roc Boronat 117, Barcelona 08018, Spain. xvilajosana@uoc.edu.

ABSTRACT
Recent standardization efforts on low-power wireless communication technologies, including time-slotted channel hopping (TSCH) and DASH7 Alliance Mode (D7AM), are starting to change industrial sensing applications, enabling networks to scale up to thousands of nodes whilst achieving high reliability. Past technologies, such as ZigBee, rooted in IEEE 802.15.4, and ISO 18000-7, rooted in frame-slotted ALOHA (FSA), are based on contention medium access control (MAC) layers and have very poor performance in dense networks, thus preventing the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm from really taking off. Industrial sensing applications, such as those being deployed in oil refineries, have stringent requirements on data reliability and are being built using new standards. Despite the benefits of these new technologies, industrial shifts are not happening due to the enormous technology development and adoption costs and the fact that new standards are not well-known and completely understood. In this article, we provide a deep analysis of TSCH and D7AM, outlining operational and implementation details with the aim of facilitating the adoption of these technologies to sensor application developers.

No MeSH data available.