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Yearly variation of bacterial production in the Arraial do Cabo protection area (Cabo Frio upwelling region): an evidence of anthropogenic pressure.

Coelho-Souza SA, Pereira GC, Coutinho R, Guimarães JR - Braz. J. Microbiol. (2014)

Bottom Line: The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles.However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM.Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biotecnologia Marinha, Instituto de Ciências do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil. ; Universidade de Santo Amaro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. ; Laboratório de Traçadores, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Arraial do Cabo is where upwelling occurs more intensively on the Brazilian coast. Although it is a protection area it suffers anthropogenic pressure such as harbor activities and sporadic sewage emissions. Short-time studies showed a high variability of bacterial production (BP) in this region but none of them evaluated BP during long periods in a large spatial scale including stations under different natural (upwelling and cold fronts) and anthropogenic pressures. During 2006, we sampled surface waters 10 times (5 in upwelling and 5 in subsidence periods) in 8 stations and we measured BP, temperature as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients, pigments and particulate organic matter (POM). BP was up to 400 times higher when sewage emissions were observed visually and it had a positive correlation with ammonia concentrations. Therefore, in 2007, we did two samples (each during upwelling and subsidence periods) during sewage emissions in five stations under different anthropogenic pressure and we also measured particles abundance by flow cytometry. The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles. However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM. Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

Show MeSH
Clustering of the studied stations considering the medians of all measured variables in surface waters. PI - Praia da Ilha; PC - Ponta da Cabeça; PV - Pedra Vermelha; PA - Praia dos Anjos; IP - Ilha dos Porcos; FnC - Forno Cultivo; FnF - Forno Flutuante; FO - Fortaleza. Details in the text.
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f4-bmj-44-4-1349: Clustering of the studied stations considering the medians of all measured variables in surface waters. PI - Praia da Ilha; PC - Ponta da Cabeça; PV - Pedra Vermelha; PA - Praia dos Anjos; IP - Ilha dos Porcos; FnC - Forno Cultivo; FnF - Forno Flutuante; FO - Fortaleza. Details in the text.

Mentions: The dendrogram using physical-chemical-biological water variables (median values) confirms the great pressure of hydrobiological variability in the Cabo Frio upwelling region (Figure 4). The PI station had the highest concentrations of chlorophylls and POM (Table 1), indicating an intense autotrophic production in this area. POM was also high in IP and in the main impacted stations, suggesting an input of allochthonous material from coastal waters and anthropogenic activities, respectively. PC station was different from the other sites since it is under influence of both upwelling and cold fronts, as shown by its lowest minimum temperature and maximum nutrient concentrations (Table 1). Inner the Cabo Frio embayment, the minimum temperatures indicated a low pressure of upwelling, except at PI station. As observed visually, this area was also under high pressure of cold fronts.


Yearly variation of bacterial production in the Arraial do Cabo protection area (Cabo Frio upwelling region): an evidence of anthropogenic pressure.

Coelho-Souza SA, Pereira GC, Coutinho R, Guimarães JR - Braz. J. Microbiol. (2014)

Clustering of the studied stations considering the medians of all measured variables in surface waters. PI - Praia da Ilha; PC - Ponta da Cabeça; PV - Pedra Vermelha; PA - Praia dos Anjos; IP - Ilha dos Porcos; FnC - Forno Cultivo; FnF - Forno Flutuante; FO - Fortaleza. Details in the text.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3958209&req=5

f4-bmj-44-4-1349: Clustering of the studied stations considering the medians of all measured variables in surface waters. PI - Praia da Ilha; PC - Ponta da Cabeça; PV - Pedra Vermelha; PA - Praia dos Anjos; IP - Ilha dos Porcos; FnC - Forno Cultivo; FnF - Forno Flutuante; FO - Fortaleza. Details in the text.
Mentions: The dendrogram using physical-chemical-biological water variables (median values) confirms the great pressure of hydrobiological variability in the Cabo Frio upwelling region (Figure 4). The PI station had the highest concentrations of chlorophylls and POM (Table 1), indicating an intense autotrophic production in this area. POM was also high in IP and in the main impacted stations, suggesting an input of allochthonous material from coastal waters and anthropogenic activities, respectively. PC station was different from the other sites since it is under influence of both upwelling and cold fronts, as shown by its lowest minimum temperature and maximum nutrient concentrations (Table 1). Inner the Cabo Frio embayment, the minimum temperatures indicated a low pressure of upwelling, except at PI station. As observed visually, this area was also under high pressure of cold fronts.

Bottom Line: The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles.However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM.Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Biotecnologia Marinha, Instituto de Ciências do Mar Almirante Paulo Moreira, Arraial do Cabo, RJ, Brazil. ; Universidade de Santo Amaro, São Paulo, SP, Brazil. ; Laboratório de Traçadores, Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Arraial do Cabo is where upwelling occurs more intensively on the Brazilian coast. Although it is a protection area it suffers anthropogenic pressure such as harbor activities and sporadic sewage emissions. Short-time studies showed a high variability of bacterial production (BP) in this region but none of them evaluated BP during long periods in a large spatial scale including stations under different natural (upwelling and cold fronts) and anthropogenic pressures. During 2006, we sampled surface waters 10 times (5 in upwelling and 5 in subsidence periods) in 8 stations and we measured BP, temperature as well as the concentrations of inorganic nutrients, pigments and particulate organic matter (POM). BP was up to 400 times higher when sewage emissions were observed visually and it had a positive correlation with ammonia concentrations. Therefore, in 2007, we did two samples (each during upwelling and subsidence periods) during sewage emissions in five stations under different anthropogenic pressure and we also measured particles abundance by flow cytometry. The 12 samples in the most impacted area confirmed that BP was highest when ammonia was higher than 2 μM, also reporting the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and suspended particles. However, considering all measured variables, upwelling was the main disturbing factor but the pressure of fronts should not be neglected since it had consequences in the auto-heterotrophic coupling, increasing the concentrations of non fluorescent particles and POM. Stations clustered in function of natural and anthropogenic pressures degrees and both determined the temporal-spatial variability.

Show MeSH