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Endosperm transfer cell-specific genes and proteins: structure, function and applications in biotechnology.

Lopato S, Borisjuk N, Langridge P, Hrmova M - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Bottom Line: The success of molecular biology-based approaches to manipulating ETC function is dependent on a thorough understanding of the functions of ETC-specific genes and ETC-specific promoters.The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data on structure and function of ETC-specific genes and their products.Potential applications of ETC-specific genes, and in particular their promoters for biotechnology will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, University of Adelaide Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are one of four main types of cells in endosperm. A characteristic feature of ETC is the presence of cell wall in-growths that create an enlarged plasma membrane surface area. This specialized cell structure is important for the specific function of ETC, which is to transfer nutrients from maternal vascular tissue to endosperm. ETC-specific genes are of particular interest to plant biotechnologists, who use genetic engineering to improve grain quality and yield characteristics of important field crops. The success of molecular biology-based approaches to manipulating ETC function is dependent on a thorough understanding of the functions of ETC-specific genes and ETC-specific promoters. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data on structure and function of ETC-specific genes and their products. Potential applications of ETC-specific genes, and in particular their promoters for biotechnology will be discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Domain analyses of selected DNA binding proteins containing MYB domains that are involved in the two component system (TCS). A multiple sequence alignment of ZmMRP-1 involved in TCS with three MYB domain-containing proteins ARR10-B of the GARP family from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 1IRZ, chain A), a telomeric repeat-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 2AJE, chain A), and a MYB domain of the RAD transcription factor from Antirrhinum majus (PDB 2CJJ, chain A). Protein sequences were aligned with ProMals3D (Pei et al., 2008) and analysed for domain boundaries using ProDom (Bru et al., 2005). The predicted and consensus secondary structures (ss) are shown in red (α-helices, h) and black (loops) types. Conservation of residues on a scale of 9–5 is shown at the top of the diagram. The absolutely conserved and similar residues are highlighted in brown and black, respectively.
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Figure 3: Domain analyses of selected DNA binding proteins containing MYB domains that are involved in the two component system (TCS). A multiple sequence alignment of ZmMRP-1 involved in TCS with three MYB domain-containing proteins ARR10-B of the GARP family from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 1IRZ, chain A), a telomeric repeat-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 2AJE, chain A), and a MYB domain of the RAD transcription factor from Antirrhinum majus (PDB 2CJJ, chain A). Protein sequences were aligned with ProMals3D (Pei et al., 2008) and analysed for domain boundaries using ProDom (Bru et al., 2005). The predicted and consensus secondary structures (ss) are shown in red (α-helices, h) and black (loops) types. Conservation of residues on a scale of 9–5 is shown at the top of the diagram. The absolutely conserved and similar residues are highlighted in brown and black, respectively.

Mentions: The first TCS components identified in cereal grains were the maize genes Transfer Cell Response Regulators1 and 2 (ZmTCRR-1 and ZmTCRR-2; Table 1). These encode members of the type-A RR of the TCS, which are responsible for phospho-transfer-based signal transduction (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010). The TCRR genes were found to be expressed exclusively in the ETC layer 8–14 days after pollination (DAP), when transfer-cell differentiation is most active. However, the ZmTCRR-1 protein was also detected in conductive tissue deep inside the endosperm, where transcription of the gene was not observed (Muñiz et al., 2006). This finding suggests that TCS is involved in intercellular signal transduction. A possible role of TCRR proteins is to integrate external signals with seed developmental processes (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010). The promoter of ZmTCRR-1 was strongly trans-activated in heterologous systems by the transfer cell-specific TF ZmMRP-1, which is a MYB type TF (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010; Gomez et al., 2009; Figure 3).


Endosperm transfer cell-specific genes and proteins: structure, function and applications in biotechnology.

Lopato S, Borisjuk N, Langridge P, Hrmova M - Front Plant Sci (2014)

Domain analyses of selected DNA binding proteins containing MYB domains that are involved in the two component system (TCS). A multiple sequence alignment of ZmMRP-1 involved in TCS with three MYB domain-containing proteins ARR10-B of the GARP family from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 1IRZ, chain A), a telomeric repeat-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 2AJE, chain A), and a MYB domain of the RAD transcription factor from Antirrhinum majus (PDB 2CJJ, chain A). Protein sequences were aligned with ProMals3D (Pei et al., 2008) and analysed for domain boundaries using ProDom (Bru et al., 2005). The predicted and consensus secondary structures (ss) are shown in red (α-helices, h) and black (loops) types. Conservation of residues on a scale of 9–5 is shown at the top of the diagram. The absolutely conserved and similar residues are highlighted in brown and black, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3936200&req=5

Figure 3: Domain analyses of selected DNA binding proteins containing MYB domains that are involved in the two component system (TCS). A multiple sequence alignment of ZmMRP-1 involved in TCS with three MYB domain-containing proteins ARR10-B of the GARP family from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 1IRZ, chain A), a telomeric repeat-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana (PDB 2AJE, chain A), and a MYB domain of the RAD transcription factor from Antirrhinum majus (PDB 2CJJ, chain A). Protein sequences were aligned with ProMals3D (Pei et al., 2008) and analysed for domain boundaries using ProDom (Bru et al., 2005). The predicted and consensus secondary structures (ss) are shown in red (α-helices, h) and black (loops) types. Conservation of residues on a scale of 9–5 is shown at the top of the diagram. The absolutely conserved and similar residues are highlighted in brown and black, respectively.
Mentions: The first TCS components identified in cereal grains were the maize genes Transfer Cell Response Regulators1 and 2 (ZmTCRR-1 and ZmTCRR-2; Table 1). These encode members of the type-A RR of the TCS, which are responsible for phospho-transfer-based signal transduction (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010). The TCRR genes were found to be expressed exclusively in the ETC layer 8–14 days after pollination (DAP), when transfer-cell differentiation is most active. However, the ZmTCRR-1 protein was also detected in conductive tissue deep inside the endosperm, where transcription of the gene was not observed (Muñiz et al., 2006). This finding suggests that TCS is involved in intercellular signal transduction. A possible role of TCRR proteins is to integrate external signals with seed developmental processes (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010). The promoter of ZmTCRR-1 was strongly trans-activated in heterologous systems by the transfer cell-specific TF ZmMRP-1, which is a MYB type TF (Muñiz et al., 2006, 2010; Gomez et al., 2009; Figure 3).

Bottom Line: The success of molecular biology-based approaches to manipulating ETC function is dependent on a thorough understanding of the functions of ETC-specific genes and ETC-specific promoters.The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data on structure and function of ETC-specific genes and their products.Potential applications of ETC-specific genes, and in particular their promoters for biotechnology will be discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Centre for Plant Functional Genomics, University of Adelaide Glen Osmond, SA, Australia.

ABSTRACT
Endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are one of four main types of cells in endosperm. A characteristic feature of ETC is the presence of cell wall in-growths that create an enlarged plasma membrane surface area. This specialized cell structure is important for the specific function of ETC, which is to transfer nutrients from maternal vascular tissue to endosperm. ETC-specific genes are of particular interest to plant biotechnologists, who use genetic engineering to improve grain quality and yield characteristics of important field crops. The success of molecular biology-based approaches to manipulating ETC function is dependent on a thorough understanding of the functions of ETC-specific genes and ETC-specific promoters. The aim of this review is to summarize the existing data on structure and function of ETC-specific genes and their products. Potential applications of ETC-specific genes, and in particular their promoters for biotechnology will be discussed.

No MeSH data available.