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Reference values and determinants of fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children.

Cho HJ, Jung YH, Yang SI, Lee E, Kim HY, Seo JH, Kwon JW, Kim BJ, Kim HB, Lee SY, Song DJ, Kim WK, Jang GC, Shim JY, Hong SJ - Allergy Asthma Immunol Res (2014)

Bottom Line: Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation.FeNO was not associated with age and gender.FeNO was not associated with BMI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation. While FeNO measurement has been standardized, reference values for elementary school children are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in children.

Methods: FeNO was measured in elementary school children at 6-12 years of age in Seoul, Korea, following American Thoracic Society guidelines and using a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden). A total of 1,252 children completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire; FeNO was measured in 1,063 children according to the protocol and in 808 children defined as healthy controls.

Results: Mean FeNO were 10.32 ppb, 16.58 ppb, and 12.36 ppb in non-atopic, atopic, and all 808 healthy controls, respectively. FeNO was not associated with age and gender. The FeNO reference equations were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account the variables of age, height, weight, total IgE, eosinophil percent, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (methacholine PC20). FeNO=0.776+0.003×total IgE+0.340×eosinophil percent; coefficient of determination (R2)=0.084 in the 501 healthy non-atopic controls. FeNO=-18.365+1.536×eosinophil percent, R2=0.183 in the 307 healthy atopic controls; and FeNO=-7.888+0.130×Height+0.004×total IgE+1.233×eosinophil percent, R2=0.209 in the 808 all healthy controls. Eosinophil percent was correlated with FeNO in all healthy controls. FeNO was not associated with BMI.

Conclusion: This study provides reference values for FeNO that can be used to evaluate airway inflammation in elementary school children. Determinants that could most accurately predict FeNO in healthy school-age children were assessed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic presentation of the recruitment of healthy children. BMI, body mass index; URI, upper respiratory infection.
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Figure 1: Schematic presentation of the recruitment of healthy children. BMI, body mass index; URI, upper respiratory infection.

Mentions: Subject characteristics, including the total study sample with FeNO measurements, are presented in Table 1. The mean age of the children was 9.21±1.75 years. There were 620 boys (49.8%) and 624 girls (50.2%). The mean BMI of the children was 17.96±3.19 kg/m2, with most children (80.3%) below the 85th percentile. Of the participants, 808 were included as healthy children according to the following exclusion criteria: physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing during the last 12 months, premature birth (gestational age <37 weeks), low birth weight (<1,500 g), obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2), or currently taking medication for upper respiratory infection10 (Figure). Physician-diagnosed asthma included children who had answered "yes" to the question "Have you ever been diagnosed by a physician to have asthma?"


Reference values and determinants of fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children.

Cho HJ, Jung YH, Yang SI, Lee E, Kim HY, Seo JH, Kwon JW, Kim BJ, Kim HB, Lee SY, Song DJ, Kim WK, Jang GC, Shim JY, Hong SJ - Allergy Asthma Immunol Res (2014)

Schematic presentation of the recruitment of healthy children. BMI, body mass index; URI, upper respiratory infection.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3936047&req=5

Figure 1: Schematic presentation of the recruitment of healthy children. BMI, body mass index; URI, upper respiratory infection.
Mentions: Subject characteristics, including the total study sample with FeNO measurements, are presented in Table 1. The mean age of the children was 9.21±1.75 years. There were 620 boys (49.8%) and 624 girls (50.2%). The mean BMI of the children was 17.96±3.19 kg/m2, with most children (80.3%) below the 85th percentile. Of the participants, 808 were included as healthy children according to the following exclusion criteria: physician-diagnosed asthma, wheezing during the last 12 months, premature birth (gestational age <37 weeks), low birth weight (<1,500 g), obesity (BMI >25 kg/m2), or currently taking medication for upper respiratory infection10 (Figure). Physician-diagnosed asthma included children who had answered "yes" to the question "Have you ever been diagnosed by a physician to have asthma?"

Bottom Line: Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation.FeNO was not associated with age and gender.FeNO was not associated with BMI.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Pediatrics, Childhood Asthma Atopy Center, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation. While FeNO measurement has been standardized, reference values for elementary school children are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in children.

Methods: FeNO was measured in elementary school children at 6-12 years of age in Seoul, Korea, following American Thoracic Society guidelines and using a chemiluminescence analyzer (NIOX Exhaled Nitric Oxide Monitoring System, Aerocrine, Sweden). A total of 1,252 children completed a modified International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire; FeNO was measured in 1,063 children according to the protocol and in 808 children defined as healthy controls.

Results: Mean FeNO were 10.32 ppb, 16.58 ppb, and 12.36 ppb in non-atopic, atopic, and all 808 healthy controls, respectively. FeNO was not associated with age and gender. The FeNO reference equations were determined by multiple linear regression analysis, taking into account the variables of age, height, weight, total IgE, eosinophil percent, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (methacholine PC20). FeNO=0.776+0.003×total IgE+0.340×eosinophil percent; coefficient of determination (R2)=0.084 in the 501 healthy non-atopic controls. FeNO=-18.365+1.536×eosinophil percent, R2=0.183 in the 307 healthy atopic controls; and FeNO=-7.888+0.130×Height+0.004×total IgE+1.233×eosinophil percent, R2=0.209 in the 808 all healthy controls. Eosinophil percent was correlated with FeNO in all healthy controls. FeNO was not associated with BMI.

Conclusion: This study provides reference values for FeNO that can be used to evaluate airway inflammation in elementary school children. Determinants that could most accurately predict FeNO in healthy school-age children were assessed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus