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Effectiveness of treatment approaches for children and adolescents with reading disabilities: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Galuschka K, Ise E, Krick K, Schulte-Körne G - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Given the emotional and academic consequences for children with persistent reading disorders, evidence-based interventions are critically needed.The mean effect sizes of the remaining treatment approaches did not reach statistical significance.The present meta-analysis demonstrates that severe reading and spelling difficulties can be ameliorated with appropriate treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Children and adolescents with reading disabilities experience a significant impairment in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Given the emotional and academic consequences for children with persistent reading disorders, evidence-based interventions are critically needed. The present meta-analysis extracts the results of all available randomized controlled trials. The aims were to determine the effectiveness of different treatment approaches and the impact of various factors on the efficacy of interventions. The literature search for published randomized-controlled trials comprised an electronic search in the databases ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane, and an examination of bibliographical references. To check for unpublished trials, we searched the websites clinicaltrials.com and ProQuest, and contacted experts in the field. Twenty-two randomized controlled trials with a total of 49 comparisons of experimental and control groups could be included. The comparisons evaluated five reading fluency trainings, three phonemic awareness instructions, three reading comprehension trainings, 29 phonics instructions, three auditory trainings, two medical treatments, and four interventions with coloured overlays or lenses. One trial evaluated the effectiveness of sunflower therapy and another investigated the effectiveness of motor exercises. The results revealed that phonics instruction is not only the most frequently investigated treatment approach, but also the only approach whose efficacy on reading and spelling performance in children and adolescents with reading disabilities is statistically confirmed. The mean effect sizes of the remaining treatment approaches did not reach statistical significance. The present meta-analysis demonstrates that severe reading and spelling difficulties can be ameliorated with appropriate treatment. In order to be better able to provide evidence-based interventions to children and adolescent with reading disabilities, research should intensify the application of blinded randomized controlled trials.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Funnel plot of standard error by Hedges g for observed and imputed comparisons.Funnel plot displays observed and imputed comparisons evaluating the efficacy of phonics instructions on reading performance.
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pone-0089900-g005: Funnel plot of standard error by Hedges g for observed and imputed comparisons.Funnel plot displays observed and imputed comparisons evaluating the efficacy of phonics instructions on reading performance.

Mentions: Only a small number of included studies assessed spelling performance. In addition, phonics instruction is the only treatment approach whose positive effect on reading performance is statistically confirmed. Therefore, publication bias was explored exemplarily only for those studies that evaluated phonics instruction and used reading performance as dependent variable. A funnel plot was used to explore the presence of publication bias. The shape of the funnel plot displayed asymmetry with a gap on the left of the graph. Using Duval and Tweedie’s trim and fill [44] the extent of publication bias was assessed and an unbiased effect size was estimated. This procedure trimmed 10 studies into the plot and led to an estimated unbiased effect size of g’ = 0.198 (95% CI [0.039, 0.357]) (see Figures 4 and 5, Table 4).


Effectiveness of treatment approaches for children and adolescents with reading disabilities: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Galuschka K, Ise E, Krick K, Schulte-Körne G - PLoS ONE (2014)

Funnel plot of standard error by Hedges g for observed and imputed comparisons.Funnel plot displays observed and imputed comparisons evaluating the efficacy of phonics instructions on reading performance.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3935956&req=5

pone-0089900-g005: Funnel plot of standard error by Hedges g for observed and imputed comparisons.Funnel plot displays observed and imputed comparisons evaluating the efficacy of phonics instructions on reading performance.
Mentions: Only a small number of included studies assessed spelling performance. In addition, phonics instruction is the only treatment approach whose positive effect on reading performance is statistically confirmed. Therefore, publication bias was explored exemplarily only for those studies that evaluated phonics instruction and used reading performance as dependent variable. A funnel plot was used to explore the presence of publication bias. The shape of the funnel plot displayed asymmetry with a gap on the left of the graph. Using Duval and Tweedie’s trim and fill [44] the extent of publication bias was assessed and an unbiased effect size was estimated. This procedure trimmed 10 studies into the plot and led to an estimated unbiased effect size of g’ = 0.198 (95% CI [0.039, 0.357]) (see Figures 4 and 5, Table 4).

Bottom Line: Given the emotional and academic consequences for children with persistent reading disorders, evidence-based interventions are critically needed.The mean effect sizes of the remaining treatment approaches did not reach statistical significance.The present meta-analysis demonstrates that severe reading and spelling difficulties can be ameliorated with appropriate treatment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Munich, Munich, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Children and adolescents with reading disabilities experience a significant impairment in the acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Given the emotional and academic consequences for children with persistent reading disorders, evidence-based interventions are critically needed. The present meta-analysis extracts the results of all available randomized controlled trials. The aims were to determine the effectiveness of different treatment approaches and the impact of various factors on the efficacy of interventions. The literature search for published randomized-controlled trials comprised an electronic search in the databases ERIC, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Cochrane, and an examination of bibliographical references. To check for unpublished trials, we searched the websites clinicaltrials.com and ProQuest, and contacted experts in the field. Twenty-two randomized controlled trials with a total of 49 comparisons of experimental and control groups could be included. The comparisons evaluated five reading fluency trainings, three phonemic awareness instructions, three reading comprehension trainings, 29 phonics instructions, three auditory trainings, two medical treatments, and four interventions with coloured overlays or lenses. One trial evaluated the effectiveness of sunflower therapy and another investigated the effectiveness of motor exercises. The results revealed that phonics instruction is not only the most frequently investigated treatment approach, but also the only approach whose efficacy on reading and spelling performance in children and adolescents with reading disabilities is statistically confirmed. The mean effect sizes of the remaining treatment approaches did not reach statistical significance. The present meta-analysis demonstrates that severe reading and spelling difficulties can be ameliorated with appropriate treatment. In order to be better able to provide evidence-based interventions to children and adolescent with reading disabilities, research should intensify the application of blinded randomized controlled trials.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus