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Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Jiang L - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms.Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression.Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China ; Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China.

Methods: 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale.

Results: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

PTSD symptoms: Worry about others × Trait resilience.This figure revealed the moderation of trait resilience in the association between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD symptoms. For participants with low level of trait resilience, worry about others was significantly and positively associated with individual PTSD symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD symptoms as a function of worry about others.
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pone-0089401-g001: PTSD symptoms: Worry about others × Trait resilience.This figure revealed the moderation of trait resilience in the association between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD symptoms. For participants with low level of trait resilience, worry about others was significantly and positively associated with individual PTSD symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD symptoms as a function of worry about others.

Mentions: To further examine the significant interaction terms [52], we graphed PTSD and depressive symptoms for participants who were either 1 standard deviation above or below the mean with respect to worry about others as well as either 1 standard deviation above or below the mean on trait resilience. As can be seen in Figure 1 and Figure 2, for participants with a low level of trait resilience, worry about others was positively related to individual PTSD and depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD and depressive symptoms as a function of worry about others. Using the simple slope syntax [53], we further tested whether the simple slopes of the interactions were significantly different than zero. For participants 1 standard deviation below the mean on trait resilience, the slope from low to high worry about others was associated with a positive and significant increase in PTSD (β = 23, p<.001) and depressive symptoms (β = 20, p<.001). By contrast, for participants 1 standard deviation above the mean on trait resilience, the slope from low to high worry about others against PTSD (β = .11, p<.05) and depressive symptoms (β = .14, p<.01) was flat.


Traumatic severity and trait resilience as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake.

Ying L, Wu X, Lin C, Jiang L - PLoS ONE (2014)

PTSD symptoms: Worry about others × Trait resilience.This figure revealed the moderation of trait resilience in the association between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD symptoms. For participants with low level of trait resilience, worry about others was significantly and positively associated with individual PTSD symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD symptoms as a function of worry about others.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3935868&req=5

pone-0089401-g001: PTSD symptoms: Worry about others × Trait resilience.This figure revealed the moderation of trait resilience in the association between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD symptoms. For participants with low level of trait resilience, worry about others was significantly and positively associated with individual PTSD symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD symptoms as a function of worry about others.
Mentions: To further examine the significant interaction terms [52], we graphed PTSD and depressive symptoms for participants who were either 1 standard deviation above or below the mean with respect to worry about others as well as either 1 standard deviation above or below the mean on trait resilience. As can be seen in Figure 1 and Figure 2, for participants with a low level of trait resilience, worry about others was positively related to individual PTSD and depressive symptoms. In contrast, participants with high level of trait resilience evidenced little variation in PTSD and depressive symptoms as a function of worry about others. Using the simple slope syntax [53], we further tested whether the simple slopes of the interactions were significantly different than zero. For participants 1 standard deviation below the mean on trait resilience, the slope from low to high worry about others was associated with a positive and significant increase in PTSD (β = 23, p<.001) and depressive symptoms (β = 20, p<.001). By contrast, for participants 1 standard deviation above the mean on trait resilience, the slope from low to high worry about others against PTSD (β = .11, p<.05) and depressive symptoms (β = .14, p<.01) was flat.

Bottom Line: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms.Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression.Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychology, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China ; Institute of Developmental Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To examine the associations between trauma severity, trait resilience, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms among adolescent survivors of the Wenchuan earthquake, China.

Methods: 788 participants were randomly selected from secondary schools in the counties of Wenchuan and Maoxian, the two areas most severely affected by the earthquake. Participants completed four main questionnaires including the Child PTSD Symptom Scale, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children, the Connor and Davidson's Resilience Scale, and the Severity of Exposure to Earthquake Scale.

Results: After adjusting for the effect of age and gender, four aspects of trauma severity (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) were positively associated with the severity of PTSD and depressive symptoms, whereas trait resilience was negatively associated with PTSD and depressive symptoms and moderated the relationship between subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) and PTSD and depressive symptoms.

Conclusions: Several aspects (i.e., direct exposure, indirect exposure, worry about others, and house damage) of earthquake experiences may be important risk factors for the development and maintenance of PTSD and depression. Additionally, trait resilience exhibits the beneficial impact on PTSD and depressive symptoms and buffers the effect of subjective experience (i.e., worry about others) on PTSD and depressive symptoms.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus