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Risk factors for hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis in England: a population-based birth cohort study.

Murray J, Bottle A, Sharland M, Modi N, Aylin P, Majeed A, Saxena S, Medicines for Neonates Investigator Gro - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life.The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3).The relative risk (RR) of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0) compared with infants born at term.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission.

Design: A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database.

Setting: 71 hospitals across England.

Participants: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life.

Results: In our cohort there were 7189 hospital admissions with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, 24.2 admissions per 1000 infants under 1 year (95%CI 23.7-24.8), of which 15% (1050/7189) were born preterm (47.3 bronchiolitis admissions per 1000 preterm infants (95% CI 44.4-50.2)). The peak age group for bronchiolitis admissions was infants aged 1 month and the median was age 120 days (IQR = 61-209 days). The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3). The relative risk (RR) of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0) compared with infants born at term. Other conditions also significantly increased risk of bronchiolitis admission, including Down's syndrome (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7) and cerebral palsy (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0).

Conclusions: Most (85%) of the infants who are admitted to hospital with bronchiolitis in England are born at term, with no known predisposing risk factors for severe RSV infection, although risk of admission is higher in known risk groups. The early age of bronchiolitis admissions has important implications for the potential impact and timing of future active and passive immunisations. More research is needed to explain why babies born with Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy are also at higher risk of hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis.

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Proportion of bronchiolitis hospital admissions among birth cohort, by Strategic Health Authority (SHA) of admission.
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pone-0089186-g002: Proportion of bronchiolitis hospital admissions among birth cohort, by Strategic Health Authority (SHA) of admission.

Mentions: Among infants admitted with bronchiolitis, 1722 (24·0%) had one or more known risk factors for severe RSV infection. The adjusted RR of a bronchiolitis admission was high among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV disease, including those born preterm (RR 1·9 (95%CI 1·8–2·0)) or with congenital heart conditions (RR 3·4 (95%CI 2·9–3·8)) or chronic lung disease (RR 1·6 (95%CI 1·4–1·8)), compared with healthy infants without the risk factor (Table 1). Other conditions also significantly increased an infant's risk of bronchiolitis admission, including cystic fibrosis (RR = 2·5 (95% CI 1·4 to 4·4)), Down's syndrome (RR 2·5 (95%CI 1·7–3·7)), cerebral palsy (RR 2·4 (95%CI 1·5–4·0)) and other nervous system congenital abnormalities (RR = 1·7 (95% CI 1·3 to 2·4)). A higher proportion of infants born in September (3·9%) or October (3·8%) were admitted with bronchiolitis than among infants born in any other month (p<0·001). Bronchiolitis admission rates among infants born in the North East (3·3%) and Yorkshire and the Humber (3·3%) SHAs, were higher (p<0·001) compared with in infants born in London (1·6%) (Figure 2).


Risk factors for hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis in England: a population-based birth cohort study.

Murray J, Bottle A, Sharland M, Modi N, Aylin P, Majeed A, Saxena S, Medicines for Neonates Investigator Gro - PLoS ONE (2014)

Proportion of bronchiolitis hospital admissions among birth cohort, by Strategic Health Authority (SHA) of admission.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3935842&req=5

pone-0089186-g002: Proportion of bronchiolitis hospital admissions among birth cohort, by Strategic Health Authority (SHA) of admission.
Mentions: Among infants admitted with bronchiolitis, 1722 (24·0%) had one or more known risk factors for severe RSV infection. The adjusted RR of a bronchiolitis admission was high among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV disease, including those born preterm (RR 1·9 (95%CI 1·8–2·0)) or with congenital heart conditions (RR 3·4 (95%CI 2·9–3·8)) or chronic lung disease (RR 1·6 (95%CI 1·4–1·8)), compared with healthy infants without the risk factor (Table 1). Other conditions also significantly increased an infant's risk of bronchiolitis admission, including cystic fibrosis (RR = 2·5 (95% CI 1·4 to 4·4)), Down's syndrome (RR 2·5 (95%CI 1·7–3·7)), cerebral palsy (RR 2·4 (95%CI 1·5–4·0)) and other nervous system congenital abnormalities (RR = 1·7 (95% CI 1·3 to 2·4)). A higher proportion of infants born in September (3·9%) or October (3·8%) were admitted with bronchiolitis than among infants born in any other month (p<0·001). Bronchiolitis admission rates among infants born in the North East (3·3%) and Yorkshire and the Humber (3·3%) SHAs, were higher (p<0·001) compared with in infants born in London (1·6%) (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life.The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3).The relative risk (RR) of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0) compared with infants born at term.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT

Objective: To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission.

Design: A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database.

Setting: 71 hospitals across England.

Participants: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life.

Results: In our cohort there were 7189 hospital admissions with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, 24.2 admissions per 1000 infants under 1 year (95%CI 23.7-24.8), of which 15% (1050/7189) were born preterm (47.3 bronchiolitis admissions per 1000 preterm infants (95% CI 44.4-50.2)). The peak age group for bronchiolitis admissions was infants aged 1 month and the median was age 120 days (IQR = 61-209 days). The median length of stay was 1 day (IQR = 0-3). The relative risk (RR) of a bronchiolitis admission was higher among infants with known risk factors for severe RSV infection, including those born preterm (RR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.8-2.0) compared with infants born at term. Other conditions also significantly increased risk of bronchiolitis admission, including Down's syndrome (RR = 2.5, 95% CI 1.7-3.7) and cerebral palsy (RR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-4.0).

Conclusions: Most (85%) of the infants who are admitted to hospital with bronchiolitis in England are born at term, with no known predisposing risk factors for severe RSV infection, although risk of admission is higher in known risk groups. The early age of bronchiolitis admissions has important implications for the potential impact and timing of future active and passive immunisations. More research is needed to explain why babies born with Down's syndrome and cerebral palsy are also at higher risk of hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus