Limits...
Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

Kaur G, Sharma G, Kumar N, Kaul MH, Bansal RA, Vajpayee M, Wig N, Sharma SK, Mehra NK - Indian J. Med. Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others).Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations.Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

A comparison of frequencies of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5 chemokine ligands (RANTES, MIP1a), CCR2 ligand (MCP1) and CXCR4 ligand (SDF-1) among the healthy north Indian population and HIV-1 infected individuals. The three significant findings in MIP1α associations and their odds ratios respectively are shown inside an insert on right lower side panel of the figure (Source: unpublished data). *P<0.05; Healthy vs HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928698&req=5

Figure 4: A comparison of frequencies of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5 chemokine ligands (RANTES, MIP1a), CCR2 ligand (MCP1) and CXCR4 ligand (SDF-1) among the healthy north Indian population and HIV-1 infected individuals. The three significant findings in MIP1α associations and their odds ratios respectively are shown inside an insert on right lower side panel of the figure (Source: unpublished data). *P<0.05; Healthy vs HIV-1 seropositive individuals.

Mentions: Studies carried out by our group (unpublished data) on chemokine ligands among north Indians are summarized in Fig. 4. The ‘G’ allele of MCP-1 occurs at a frequency of 28 per cent among north Indians. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of -2518MCP-1 A/G were found to be comparable between HIV +ve subjects and healthy controls. These findings are consistent with a previous study from south India, in which the frequency of ‘G’ allele was reported to be 34 per cent, and showed no association with HIV susceptibility and development of tuberculosis39. Further, a cumulative analysis of MCP-1 and its ligand CCR2 genetic variants together did not reveal association of this receptor-ligand genetic axis with susceptibility towards HIV infection in north Indians.


Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

Kaur G, Sharma G, Kumar N, Kaul MH, Bansal RA, Vajpayee M, Wig N, Sharma SK, Mehra NK - Indian J. Med. Res. (2013)

A comparison of frequencies of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5 chemokine ligands (RANTES, MIP1a), CCR2 ligand (MCP1) and CXCR4 ligand (SDF-1) among the healthy north Indian population and HIV-1 infected individuals. The three significant findings in MIP1α associations and their odds ratios respectively are shown inside an insert on right lower side panel of the figure (Source: unpublished data). *P<0.05; Healthy vs HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928698&req=5

Figure 4: A comparison of frequencies of genetic polymorphisms in CCR5 chemokine ligands (RANTES, MIP1a), CCR2 ligand (MCP1) and CXCR4 ligand (SDF-1) among the healthy north Indian population and HIV-1 infected individuals. The three significant findings in MIP1α associations and their odds ratios respectively are shown inside an insert on right lower side panel of the figure (Source: unpublished data). *P<0.05; Healthy vs HIV-1 seropositive individuals.
Mentions: Studies carried out by our group (unpublished data) on chemokine ligands among north Indians are summarized in Fig. 4. The ‘G’ allele of MCP-1 occurs at a frequency of 28 per cent among north Indians. The allelic and genotypic frequencies of -2518MCP-1 A/G were found to be comparable between HIV +ve subjects and healthy controls. These findings are consistent with a previous study from south India, in which the frequency of ‘G’ allele was reported to be 34 per cent, and showed no association with HIV susceptibility and development of tuberculosis39. Further, a cumulative analysis of MCP-1 and its ligand CCR2 genetic variants together did not reveal association of this receptor-ligand genetic axis with susceptibility towards HIV infection in north Indians.

Bottom Line: These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others).Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations.Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus