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Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

Kaur G, Sharma G, Kumar N, Kaul MH, Bansal RA, Vajpayee M, Wig N, Sharma SK, Mehra NK - Indian J. Med. Res. (2013)

Bottom Line: These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others).Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations.Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

‘HIV clock’ showing major landmarks in research and therapy relating HIV/AIDS pandemic since its inception apparently in early 1980s’. ART, antiretroviral therapy; HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; GWAS, genome-wide association studies; HPV, human papilloma virus.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 1: ‘HIV clock’ showing major landmarks in research and therapy relating HIV/AIDS pandemic since its inception apparently in early 1980s’. ART, antiretroviral therapy; HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; GWAS, genome-wide association studies; HPV, human papilloma virus.

Mentions: Despite several achievements in research, therapy and management against HIV/AIDS during the last more than three decades (Fig. 1), attempts to generate an effective preventive or therapeutic vaccine have not been successful so far.


Genomic architecture of HIV-1 infection: current status & challenges.

Kaur G, Sharma G, Kumar N, Kaul MH, Bansal RA, Vajpayee M, Wig N, Sharma SK, Mehra NK - Indian J. Med. Res. (2013)

‘HIV clock’ showing major landmarks in research and therapy relating HIV/AIDS pandemic since its inception apparently in early 1980s’. ART, antiretroviral therapy; HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; GWAS, genome-wide association studies; HPV, human papilloma virus.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928698&req=5

Figure 1: ‘HIV clock’ showing major landmarks in research and therapy relating HIV/AIDS pandemic since its inception apparently in early 1980s’. ART, antiretroviral therapy; HSCT, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; GWAS, genome-wide association studies; HPV, human papilloma virus.
Mentions: Despite several achievements in research, therapy and management against HIV/AIDS during the last more than three decades (Fig. 1), attempts to generate an effective preventive or therapeutic vaccine have not been successful so far.

Bottom Line: These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others).Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations.Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Transplant Immunology & Immunogenetics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

ABSTRACT
Studies on host genomics have revealed the existence of identifiable HIV-1 specific protective factors among infected individuals who remain naturally resistant viraemia controllers with little or no evidence of virus replication. These factors are broadly grouped into those that are immune associated (MHC, chemokines, cytokines, CTLs and others), linked to viral entry (chemokine co-receptors and ligands), act as post-entry restriction elements (TRIM5a, APOBEC3) and those associated with viral replication (cytokines and others). These features have been identified through multiple experimental approaches ranging from candidate gene approaches, genome wide association studies (GWAS), expression analysis in conjunction with functional assays in humans to primate based models. Several studies have highlighted the individual and population level gross differences both in the viral clade sequences as well as host determined genetic associations. This review collates current information on studies involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as well as non MHC genes in the context of HIV-1 infection and AIDS involving varied ethnic groups. Special focus of the review is on the genetic studies carried out on the Indian population. Further challenges with regard to therapeutic interventions based on current knowledge have been discussed along with discussion on documented cases of stem cell therapy and very early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) interventions.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus