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Assessment of morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum infection in China.

Chen MG - Infect Dis Poverty (2014)

Bottom Line: Due to the socio-economic situation, which did not allow for a control program to be implemented until the early 1950s, morbidity was serious and mortality was high before this.Comparatively higher morbidity is seen in the acute and advanced phases of the disease.The problem of mammalian reservoir hosts of S. japonicum makes the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China even more complicated and arduous, and the control progress in animal reservoirs is briefly presented.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. mgchen51@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a historical assessment of morbidity due to the Schistosoma japonicum infection in China. Due to the socio-economic situation, which did not allow for a control program to be implemented until the early 1950s, morbidity was serious and mortality was high before this. Based on a few investigations and published papers, it can be said that the disease caused millions of deaths, and destroyed numerous families and villages. Since the 1950s, there has been a national control program, intensive control and prevention work has been carried out, and consequently the disease is being controlled. At present, both the prevalence and the morbidity of the disease have been decreasing substantially. The morbidity of the three phases of the disease is outlined in this paper. Comparatively higher morbidity is seen in the acute and advanced phases of the disease. The four major forms of advanced schistosomiasis i.e., ascites, megalosplenia, dwarfism, and colonic tumoroid proliferation, are outlined with their characteristic clinical presentations; their proportions are different during various periods of the national control program. Ectopic schistosomiasis and the relationship between the S. japonicum infection and colorectal cancer are also discussed. Post-transmission schistosomiasis is briefly discussed (which can happen even if the disease reaches the criteria of elimination, and the infection and transmission have stopped, but yet it still develops). The problem of mammalian reservoir hosts of S. japonicum makes the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China even more complicated and arduous, and the control progress in animal reservoirs is briefly presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Collective photo of male advanced cases with ascites in the Guizi County Anti-schistosomiasis Hospital in 1959 (Author’s collection).
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Figure 6: Collective photo of male advanced cases with ascites in the Guizi County Anti-schistosomiasis Hospital in 1959 (Author’s collection).

Mentions: Patients with ascites were considered to be the most serious among all forms of advanced schistosomiasis. Ascetic patients due to schistosomiasis were commonly seen in the endemic areas. In the 1950s and 1960s, they consisted of about one third of the advanced disease, and the number of the subjects was estimated to be as high as several hundred thousands in whole country [34]. In the special hospitals for schistosomiasis with 50 to 100 beds in heavily endemic areas, dozens of ascetic patients could be found, as shown by Figures 6 and 7, which were taken in small hospitals in 1959 in the Guichi County, Anhui Province, and in 1965 in Changshu County, Jiangsu Province, respectively. The collective photos of advanced cases with ascites could only be taken in the earlier phase of the national control program, i.e., in the 1950s until the 1970s, and, thanks to the intensive control program, after 1980, the number of ascetic patients significantly decreased. Individual photos of advanced schistosomiasis are shown in Figures 8 and 9. The volume of ascites in one advanced case was documented as large as 20 liters, about one third of his body weight, as assessed by the technique of repeated abdominal paracentesis and injection with methylene blue. Along with the progress of the control effect, the number of ascetic patients due to schistosomiasis has considerably decreased in recent years [36,49].


Assessment of morbidity due to Schistosoma japonicum infection in China.

Chen MG - Infect Dis Poverty (2014)

Collective photo of male advanced cases with ascites in the Guizi County Anti-schistosomiasis Hospital in 1959 (Author’s collection).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928580&req=5

Figure 6: Collective photo of male advanced cases with ascites in the Guizi County Anti-schistosomiasis Hospital in 1959 (Author’s collection).
Mentions: Patients with ascites were considered to be the most serious among all forms of advanced schistosomiasis. Ascetic patients due to schistosomiasis were commonly seen in the endemic areas. In the 1950s and 1960s, they consisted of about one third of the advanced disease, and the number of the subjects was estimated to be as high as several hundred thousands in whole country [34]. In the special hospitals for schistosomiasis with 50 to 100 beds in heavily endemic areas, dozens of ascetic patients could be found, as shown by Figures 6 and 7, which were taken in small hospitals in 1959 in the Guichi County, Anhui Province, and in 1965 in Changshu County, Jiangsu Province, respectively. The collective photos of advanced cases with ascites could only be taken in the earlier phase of the national control program, i.e., in the 1950s until the 1970s, and, thanks to the intensive control program, after 1980, the number of ascetic patients significantly decreased. Individual photos of advanced schistosomiasis are shown in Figures 8 and 9. The volume of ascites in one advanced case was documented as large as 20 liters, about one third of his body weight, as assessed by the technique of repeated abdominal paracentesis and injection with methylene blue. Along with the progress of the control effect, the number of ascetic patients due to schistosomiasis has considerably decreased in recent years [36,49].

Bottom Line: Due to the socio-economic situation, which did not allow for a control program to be implemented until the early 1950s, morbidity was serious and mortality was high before this.Comparatively higher morbidity is seen in the acute and advanced phases of the disease.The problem of mammalian reservoir hosts of S. japonicum makes the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China even more complicated and arduous, and the control progress in animal reservoirs is briefly presented.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People's Republic of China. mgchen51@hotmail.com.

ABSTRACT
This paper presents a historical assessment of morbidity due to the Schistosoma japonicum infection in China. Due to the socio-economic situation, which did not allow for a control program to be implemented until the early 1950s, morbidity was serious and mortality was high before this. Based on a few investigations and published papers, it can be said that the disease caused millions of deaths, and destroyed numerous families and villages. Since the 1950s, there has been a national control program, intensive control and prevention work has been carried out, and consequently the disease is being controlled. At present, both the prevalence and the morbidity of the disease have been decreasing substantially. The morbidity of the three phases of the disease is outlined in this paper. Comparatively higher morbidity is seen in the acute and advanced phases of the disease. The four major forms of advanced schistosomiasis i.e., ascites, megalosplenia, dwarfism, and colonic tumoroid proliferation, are outlined with their characteristic clinical presentations; their proportions are different during various periods of the national control program. Ectopic schistosomiasis and the relationship between the S. japonicum infection and colorectal cancer are also discussed. Post-transmission schistosomiasis is briefly discussed (which can happen even if the disease reaches the criteria of elimination, and the infection and transmission have stopped, but yet it still develops). The problem of mammalian reservoir hosts of S. japonicum makes the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in China even more complicated and arduous, and the control progress in animal reservoirs is briefly presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus