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Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

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Total contents of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in roots (a), stems (b) and leaves (c) of potato cv. ‘Bintje’ treated with 250 μM AlCl3 or without AlCl3 (acidic control) at 48 h. Nitrosothiol content was determined by chemiluminescence using a Sievers® Nitric Oxide Analyzer NOA 280i. Detection of SNOs in potato leaves by immunofluorescence histochemistry using Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-Link reagent phenylmercury. Blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs in roots (d, e) and leaves (f–j) of control and Al-treated potato. Bars indicate 250 μm (d, e), 200 μm (h, i), 100 μm (f, g, j). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from non-treated control potato plants at P < 0.05
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Fig5: Total contents of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in roots (a), stems (b) and leaves (c) of potato cv. ‘Bintje’ treated with 250 μM AlCl3 or without AlCl3 (acidic control) at 48 h. Nitrosothiol content was determined by chemiluminescence using a Sievers® Nitric Oxide Analyzer NOA 280i. Detection of SNOs in potato leaves by immunofluorescence histochemistry using Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-Link reagent phenylmercury. Blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs in roots (d, e) and leaves (f–j) of control and Al-treated potato. Bars indicate 250 μm (d, e), 200 μm (h, i), 100 μm (f, g, j). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from non-treated control potato plants at P < 0.05

Mentions: To gain further insight into the participation of NO in the acquisition of the cross-resistance phenomenon between aluminum and biotic stress, the key parameters involving NO metabolism were analyzed. Based on a precise chemiluminescence method it was found that Al exposure reduced by approx. 25 % the total pool of SNOs in roots, whereas twofold higher SNOs production was observed in leaves and stems (Fig. 5a–c). Additional localization of SNOs using a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link, in control leaves showed blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs, present mainly in the phloem tissue (Fig. 5h). In leaves of Al-supplied plants the distribution of SNOs was expanded not only in the vascular tissue, but also in the spongy and palisade mesophyll (Fig. 5g, i, j). Moreover, the treatment with 250 μM AlCl3 for 48 h significantly diminished SNOs formation in potato roots (Fig. 5e). When N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) and Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link were omitted in the incubation mixture, blue fluorescence was almost undetectable and similar results were obtained when the Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link was added and NEM omitted (data not presented).Fig. 5


Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Total contents of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in roots (a), stems (b) and leaves (c) of potato cv. ‘Bintje’ treated with 250 μM AlCl3 or without AlCl3 (acidic control) at 48 h. Nitrosothiol content was determined by chemiluminescence using a Sievers® Nitric Oxide Analyzer NOA 280i. Detection of SNOs in potato leaves by immunofluorescence histochemistry using Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-Link reagent phenylmercury. Blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs in roots (d, e) and leaves (f–j) of control and Al-treated potato. Bars indicate 250 μm (d, e), 200 μm (h, i), 100 μm (f, g, j). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from non-treated control potato plants at P < 0.05
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928512&req=5

Fig5: Total contents of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) in roots (a), stems (b) and leaves (c) of potato cv. ‘Bintje’ treated with 250 μM AlCl3 or without AlCl3 (acidic control) at 48 h. Nitrosothiol content was determined by chemiluminescence using a Sievers® Nitric Oxide Analyzer NOA 280i. Detection of SNOs in potato leaves by immunofluorescence histochemistry using Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-Link reagent phenylmercury. Blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs in roots (d, e) and leaves (f–j) of control and Al-treated potato. Bars indicate 250 μm (d, e), 200 μm (h, i), 100 μm (f, g, j). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from non-treated control potato plants at P < 0.05
Mentions: To gain further insight into the participation of NO in the acquisition of the cross-resistance phenomenon between aluminum and biotic stress, the key parameters involving NO metabolism were analyzed. Based on a precise chemiluminescence method it was found that Al exposure reduced by approx. 25 % the total pool of SNOs in roots, whereas twofold higher SNOs production was observed in leaves and stems (Fig. 5a–c). Additional localization of SNOs using a fluorescent probe, Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link, in control leaves showed blue fluorescence attributable to SNOs, present mainly in the phloem tissue (Fig. 5h). In leaves of Al-supplied plants the distribution of SNOs was expanded not only in the vascular tissue, but also in the spongy and palisade mesophyll (Fig. 5g, i, j). Moreover, the treatment with 250 μM AlCl3 for 48 h significantly diminished SNOs formation in potato roots (Fig. 5e). When N-ethyl maleimide (NEM) and Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link were omitted in the incubation mixture, blue fluorescence was almost undetectable and similar results were obtained when the Alexa Fluor 405 Hg-link was added and NEM omitted (data not presented).Fig. 5

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus