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Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

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Bio-imaging of NO with a Cu-FL fluorescent probe in potato roots (a–c) and leaves (d, e, g–i) at 48 h after root exposure to 250 μM AlCl3. Images show general phenomena representative of three individual experiments; control of background where the fluorescent probe was omitted (f). Bars indicate 200 μm (d–f), 100 μm (a, c, g, h) and 20 μm (b, i). Measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in extracts of potato roots (j), stems (k) and leaves (l) exposed to aluminum. NO production was assayed spectrofluorimetrically using a selective NO sensor (Cu-FL). FL-NO fluorescence intensity represents mean values for the average of data ± SD of three independent experiments
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Fig3: Bio-imaging of NO with a Cu-FL fluorescent probe in potato roots (a–c) and leaves (d, e, g–i) at 48 h after root exposure to 250 μM AlCl3. Images show general phenomena representative of three individual experiments; control of background where the fluorescent probe was omitted (f). Bars indicate 200 μm (d–f), 100 μm (a, c, g, h) and 20 μm (b, i). Measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in extracts of potato roots (j), stems (k) and leaves (l) exposed to aluminum. NO production was assayed spectrofluorimetrically using a selective NO sensor (Cu-FL). FL-NO fluorescence intensity represents mean values for the average of data ± SD of three independent experiments

Mentions: The localization of NO was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using the selective fluorescent probe cupper-complex (Cu-FL), where green fluorescence corresponds to the location of NO. Based on FL-NO fluorescence we observed that the control potato generated considerable amounts of NO only in the root apical zone (Fig. 3a, b). The treatment with 250 μM AlCl3 for 48 h significantly diminished NO synthesis in the elongation and differentiation zone of potato roots (Fig. 3c). In addition, quantitative measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in potato extracts confirmed a decrease in NO synthesis in roots and revealed diminished the signal generation in stems as well (Fig. 3j, k). In leaves NO-dependent fluorescence was increased (Fig. 3g–i, l). The enhanced NO formation was found particularly in the parenchyma and in single cells of palisade mesophyll (Fig. 3g–i). The application of 1 mM PTIO almost completely eliminated green fluorescence in Al-treated potato (see Supporting Information Fig. S2). The potato leaf cross section was presented in Supporting Information (Fig. S3).Fig. 3


Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Bio-imaging of NO with a Cu-FL fluorescent probe in potato roots (a–c) and leaves (d, e, g–i) at 48 h after root exposure to 250 μM AlCl3. Images show general phenomena representative of three individual experiments; control of background where the fluorescent probe was omitted (f). Bars indicate 200 μm (d–f), 100 μm (a, c, g, h) and 20 μm (b, i). Measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in extracts of potato roots (j), stems (k) and leaves (l) exposed to aluminum. NO production was assayed spectrofluorimetrically using a selective NO sensor (Cu-FL). FL-NO fluorescence intensity represents mean values for the average of data ± SD of three independent experiments
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928512&req=5

Fig3: Bio-imaging of NO with a Cu-FL fluorescent probe in potato roots (a–c) and leaves (d, e, g–i) at 48 h after root exposure to 250 μM AlCl3. Images show general phenomena representative of three individual experiments; control of background where the fluorescent probe was omitted (f). Bars indicate 200 μm (d–f), 100 μm (a, c, g, h) and 20 μm (b, i). Measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in extracts of potato roots (j), stems (k) and leaves (l) exposed to aluminum. NO production was assayed spectrofluorimetrically using a selective NO sensor (Cu-FL). FL-NO fluorescence intensity represents mean values for the average of data ± SD of three independent experiments
Mentions: The localization of NO was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy using the selective fluorescent probe cupper-complex (Cu-FL), where green fluorescence corresponds to the location of NO. Based on FL-NO fluorescence we observed that the control potato generated considerable amounts of NO only in the root apical zone (Fig. 3a, b). The treatment with 250 μM AlCl3 for 48 h significantly diminished NO synthesis in the elongation and differentiation zone of potato roots (Fig. 3c). In addition, quantitative measurement of FL-NO fluorescence in potato extracts confirmed a decrease in NO synthesis in roots and revealed diminished the signal generation in stems as well (Fig. 3j, k). In leaves NO-dependent fluorescence was increased (Fig. 3g–i, l). The enhanced NO formation was found particularly in the parenchyma and in single cells of palisade mesophyll (Fig. 3g–i). The application of 1 mM PTIO almost completely eliminated green fluorescence in Al-treated potato (see Supporting Information Fig. S2). The potato leaf cross section was presented in Supporting Information (Fig. S3).Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus