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Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

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The level of free SA and SA conjugated with Glc in potato plants exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. SA and SAG content was measured in roots (a), shoots (b) and leaves (c). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated control plants at P < 0.05
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Fig2: The level of free SA and SA conjugated with Glc in potato plants exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. SA and SAG content was measured in roots (a), shoots (b) and leaves (c). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated control plants at P < 0.05

Mentions: To determine if root exposure to Al may modulate a post-stress signaling network in the upper organs, the levels of SA, NO and H2O2 in stems and leaves were also determined. The relatively short-term exposure of potato plants to Al provoked a marked, by ca. 70 %, decrease in free SA content in roots (Fig. 2a). The abated level of SA accumulation in response to Al treatment was observed in potato stems as well; however, the steady-state level of free SA was higher than in roots (Fig. 2b). Surprisingly, the level of free SA in leaves increased by over threefold in response to Al treatment (Fig. 2c).Fig. 2


Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

The level of free SA and SA conjugated with Glc in potato plants exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. SA and SAG content was measured in roots (a), shoots (b) and leaves (c). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated control plants at P < 0.05
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928512&req=5

Fig2: The level of free SA and SA conjugated with Glc in potato plants exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. SA and SAG content was measured in roots (a), shoots (b) and leaves (c). Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated control plants at P < 0.05
Mentions: To determine if root exposure to Al may modulate a post-stress signaling network in the upper organs, the levels of SA, NO and H2O2 in stems and leaves were also determined. The relatively short-term exposure of potato plants to Al provoked a marked, by ca. 70 %, decrease in free SA content in roots (Fig. 2a). The abated level of SA accumulation in response to Al treatment was observed in potato stems as well; however, the steady-state level of free SA was higher than in roots (Fig. 2b). Surprisingly, the level of free SA in leaves increased by over threefold in response to Al treatment (Fig. 2c).Fig. 2

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus