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Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

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The qRT-PCR analysis of PR-1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL gene expression in roots (a) and leaves (b) of potato exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. β-1,3-Glucanase (c) and chitinase (d) activities in roots and leaves of Al-treated potato. Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated (control) potato plants at P < 0.05, n = 3
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Fig1: The qRT-PCR analysis of PR-1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL gene expression in roots (a) and leaves (b) of potato exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. β-1,3-Glucanase (c) and chitinase (d) activities in roots and leaves of Al-treated potato. Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated (control) potato plants at P < 0.05, n = 3

Mentions: Potato exposure to Al significantly up-regulated the expression of two of the four studied defense-related genes in roots including PR-1 and PAL. However, the highest expression level (over threefold increase) was noted for PR-1 (Fig. 1a). In leaves mRNA coding for PR-2, PR-3 and PAL was effectively increased, ranging from 3- to 18-fold increase for PR-3 and PR-2, respectively (Fig. 1b). A distinct pattern of expression was observed for PR-1, since Al did not elicit the significant rise of PR-1 transcript accumulation in distal organs. Furthermore, Al-mediated up-regulation of PR-2 and PR-3 in leaves was correlated in time with an elevated β-1,3-glucanse and chitinase activity (Fig. 1c, d).Fig. 1


Aluminum induces cross-resistance of potato to Phytophthora infestans.

Arasimowicz-Jelonek M, Floryszak-Wieczorek J, Drzewiecka K, Chmielowska-Bąk J, Abramowski D, Izbiańska K - Planta (2013)

The qRT-PCR analysis of PR-1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL gene expression in roots (a) and leaves (b) of potato exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. β-1,3-Glucanase (c) and chitinase (d) activities in roots and leaves of Al-treated potato. Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated (control) potato plants at P < 0.05, n = 3
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928512&req=5

Fig1: The qRT-PCR analysis of PR-1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL gene expression in roots (a) and leaves (b) of potato exposed to 250 μM AlCl3 at 48 h. β-1,3-Glucanase (c) and chitinase (d) activities in roots and leaves of Al-treated potato. Asterisks indicate values that differ significantly from the non-treated (control) potato plants at P < 0.05, n = 3
Mentions: Potato exposure to Al significantly up-regulated the expression of two of the four studied defense-related genes in roots including PR-1 and PAL. However, the highest expression level (over threefold increase) was noted for PR-1 (Fig. 1a). In leaves mRNA coding for PR-2, PR-3 and PAL was effectively increased, ranging from 3- to 18-fold increase for PR-3 and PR-2, respectively (Fig. 1b). A distinct pattern of expression was observed for PR-1, since Al did not elicit the significant rise of PR-1 transcript accumulation in distal organs. Furthermore, Al-mediated up-regulation of PR-2 and PR-3 in leaves was correlated in time with an elevated β-1,3-glucanse and chitinase activity (Fig. 1c, d).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways.In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation.Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Ecophysiology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614, Poznan, Poland, marasimowicz@wp.pl.

ABSTRACT
The phenomenon of cross-resistance allows plants to acquire resistance to a broad range of stresses after previous exposure to one specific factor. Although this stress-response relationship has been known for decades, the sequence of events that underpin cross-resistance remains unknown. Our experiments revealed that susceptible potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Bintje) undergoing aluminum (Al) stress at the root level showed enhanced defense responses correlated with reduced disease symptoms after leaf inoculation with Phytophthora infestans. The protection capacity of Al to subsequent stress was associated with the local accumulation of H2O2 in roots and systemic activation of salicylic acid (SA) and nitric oxide (NO) dependent pathways. The most crucial Al-mediated changes involved coding of NO message in an enhanced S-nitrosothiol formation in leaves tuned with an abundant SNOs accumulation in the main vein of leaves. Al-induced distal NO generation was correlated with the overexpression of PR-2 and PR-3 at both mRNA and protein activity levels. In turn, after contact with a pathogen we observed early up-regulation of SA-mediated defense genes, e.g. PR1, PR-2, PR-3 and PAL, and subsequent disease limitation. Taken together Al exposure induced distal changes in the biochemical stress imprint, facilitating more effective responses to a subsequent pathogen attack.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus