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Nanoparticles in relation to peptide and protein aggregation.

Zaman M, Ahmad E, Qadeer A, Rabbani G, Khan RH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Bottom Line: The observed effect of nanoparticles on the nucleation phase is determined by particle composition, as well as the amount and nature of the particle's surface.In the present review, we attempt to explore the effects of nanoparticles on protein and peptide fibrillation processes from both perspectives (ie, as inducers and inhibitors on nucleation kinetics and in the disaggregation of preformed fibrils).Their formulation and characterization by different techniques have been also addressed, along with their toxicological effects, both in vivo and in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

ABSTRACT
Over the past two decades, there has been considerable research interest in the use of nanoparticles in the study of protein and peptide aggregation, and of amyloid-related diseases. The influence of nanoparticles on amyloid formation yields great interest due to its small size and high surface area-to-volume ratio. Targeting nucleation kinetics by nanoparticles is one of the most searched for ways to control or induce this phenomenon. The observed effect of nanoparticles on the nucleation phase is determined by particle composition, as well as the amount and nature of the particle's surface. Various thermodynamic parameters influence the interaction of proteins and nanoparticles in the solution, and regulate the protein assembly into fibrils, as well as the disaggregation of preformed fibrils. Metals, organic particles, inorganic particles, amino acids, peptides, proteins, and so on are more suitable candidates for nanoparticle formulation. In the present review, we attempt to explore the effects of nanoparticles on protein and peptide fibrillation processes from both perspectives (ie, as inducers and inhibitors on nucleation kinetics and in the disaggregation of preformed fibrils). Their formulation and characterization by different techniques have been also addressed, along with their toxicological effects, both in vivo and in vitro.

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Preparation of silver nanoparticles using a citrate synthesis method.
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f3-ijn-9-899: Preparation of silver nanoparticles using a citrate synthesis method.

Mentions: Currently, there are various methods that are being used for the preparation of nanoparticles. Several comprehensive reviews are available where the preparatory methods are discussed in great detail.47–49 The commonly employed materials and methods used for the synthesis of nanoparticles are summarized in Table 1. Protein-based nanoparticles, such as those that use albumin, gliadin, legumin, and so on, are synthesized by an emulsification method in which phase separation is required by addition of a desolvating agent, followed by modifications in temperature as well as pH.50–54 Nanoparticles synthesized from metals such as gold, copper, and silver, are synthesized using the citrate synthetase method. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized by the reduction of chloroauric acid using trisodium citrate in the presence of a stabilizing agent; however, copper nanoparticles are synthesized by the reduction of copper salts by sodium citrate and myristic acid.55,56 Silver nanoparticles are synthesized by the method described by Bae et al,57 as shown in Figure 3. Among the organic compounds, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid is most popular in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as it controls the parameters using bottom–up and top–down techniques.58 For the preparation of nanoparticles from different inorganic nanomaterials such as metal oxides, alloys, chalcogenides, and pinctides, chemical methods are very useful.59 Recently, Wei et al60 reported various inorganic nanoparticles such as terbium, erbium, yttrium, zinc, gadolinium, and others, using a facile homogeneous precipitation method, and the authors found that these particles show low toxicity even at a concentration of 5 mg/mL.60 Dendrimers are synthesized by two commonly used approaches (ie, convergent and divergent61), as described in Figure 4.


Nanoparticles in relation to peptide and protein aggregation.

Zaman M, Ahmad E, Qadeer A, Rabbani G, Khan RH - Int J Nanomedicine (2014)

Preparation of silver nanoparticles using a citrate synthesis method.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928455&req=5

f3-ijn-9-899: Preparation of silver nanoparticles using a citrate synthesis method.
Mentions: Currently, there are various methods that are being used for the preparation of nanoparticles. Several comprehensive reviews are available where the preparatory methods are discussed in great detail.47–49 The commonly employed materials and methods used for the synthesis of nanoparticles are summarized in Table 1. Protein-based nanoparticles, such as those that use albumin, gliadin, legumin, and so on, are synthesized by an emulsification method in which phase separation is required by addition of a desolvating agent, followed by modifications in temperature as well as pH.50–54 Nanoparticles synthesized from metals such as gold, copper, and silver, are synthesized using the citrate synthetase method. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized by the reduction of chloroauric acid using trisodium citrate in the presence of a stabilizing agent; however, copper nanoparticles are synthesized by the reduction of copper salts by sodium citrate and myristic acid.55,56 Silver nanoparticles are synthesized by the method described by Bae et al,57 as shown in Figure 3. Among the organic compounds, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid is most popular in the synthesis of nanoparticles, as it controls the parameters using bottom–up and top–down techniques.58 For the preparation of nanoparticles from different inorganic nanomaterials such as metal oxides, alloys, chalcogenides, and pinctides, chemical methods are very useful.59 Recently, Wei et al60 reported various inorganic nanoparticles such as terbium, erbium, yttrium, zinc, gadolinium, and others, using a facile homogeneous precipitation method, and the authors found that these particles show low toxicity even at a concentration of 5 mg/mL.60 Dendrimers are synthesized by two commonly used approaches (ie, convergent and divergent61), as described in Figure 4.

Bottom Line: The observed effect of nanoparticles on the nucleation phase is determined by particle composition, as well as the amount and nature of the particle's surface.In the present review, we attempt to explore the effects of nanoparticles on protein and peptide fibrillation processes from both perspectives (ie, as inducers and inhibitors on nucleation kinetics and in the disaggregation of preformed fibrils).Their formulation and characterization by different techniques have been also addressed, along with their toxicological effects, both in vivo and in vitro.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Interdisciplinary Biotechnology Unit, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

ABSTRACT
Over the past two decades, there has been considerable research interest in the use of nanoparticles in the study of protein and peptide aggregation, and of amyloid-related diseases. The influence of nanoparticles on amyloid formation yields great interest due to its small size and high surface area-to-volume ratio. Targeting nucleation kinetics by nanoparticles is one of the most searched for ways to control or induce this phenomenon. The observed effect of nanoparticles on the nucleation phase is determined by particle composition, as well as the amount and nature of the particle's surface. Various thermodynamic parameters influence the interaction of proteins and nanoparticles in the solution, and regulate the protein assembly into fibrils, as well as the disaggregation of preformed fibrils. Metals, organic particles, inorganic particles, amino acids, peptides, proteins, and so on are more suitable candidates for nanoparticle formulation. In the present review, we attempt to explore the effects of nanoparticles on protein and peptide fibrillation processes from both perspectives (ie, as inducers and inhibitors on nucleation kinetics and in the disaggregation of preformed fibrils). Their formulation and characterization by different techniques have been also addressed, along with their toxicological effects, both in vivo and in vitro.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus