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Interindividual differences in mid-adolescents in error monitoring and post-error adjustment.

Rodehacke S, Mennigen E, Müller KU, Ripke S, Jacob MJ, Hübner T, Schmidt DH, Goschke T, Smolka MN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence.To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component.Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence. The precise differences in brain function between adults and adolescents with respect to cognitive control, however, remain unclear. To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component. Behavioural responses (i.e. reaction time, RT; error rate, ER) and brain activity during correct, error and post-error trials, detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were measured. Behaviourally, RT and ER were significantly higher in incongruent than in congruent trials and in switch than in repeat trials. The two groups did not differ in RT during correct trials, but adolescents had a significantly higher ER than adults. In line with similar RTs, brain responses during correct trials did not differ between groups, indicating that adolescents and adults engage the same cognitive control network to successfully overcome S-R interference or task switches. Interestingly, adolescents with stronger brain activation in the bilateral insulae during error trials and in fronto-parietal regions of the cognitive control network during post-error trials did have lower ERs. This indicates that those mid-adolescents who commit fewer errors are better at monitoring their performance, and after detecting errors are more capable of flexibly allocating further cognitive control resources. Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

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Brain response during correct post-error/post-missing trials.Note that only 181 adolescents and 22 adults which made at least three mistakes were considered for this analysis. A) Regions of the brain during post-error/post-missing trials that show a significant negative correlation with overall ER (threshold T = 2.77, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels) in adolescents. B) Correlation coefficients for the correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER for adolescents (blue) and adults (orange) in the peak voxels (sorted by t-values, please see also Table S4). The correlations only reached significance in adolescents.
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pone-0088957-g005: Brain response during correct post-error/post-missing trials.Note that only 181 adolescents and 22 adults which made at least three mistakes were considered for this analysis. A) Regions of the brain during post-error/post-missing trials that show a significant negative correlation with overall ER (threshold T = 2.77, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels) in adolescents. B) Correlation coefficients for the correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER for adolescents (blue) and adults (orange) in the peak voxels (sorted by t-values, please see also Table S4). The correlations only reached significance in adolescents.

Mentions: We find it interesting that there was a significant negative correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER in a network of parietal and prefrontal structures (see Figure 5A, green colour scale, and Table S4), but only in adolescents. For adults there was a non-significant trend in the opposite direction (see Figure 5B). Although not significant at the predefined level, the secondary analysis at a lenient threshold revealed an interaction between ER and group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6).


Interindividual differences in mid-adolescents in error monitoring and post-error adjustment.

Rodehacke S, Mennigen E, Müller KU, Ripke S, Jacob MJ, Hübner T, Schmidt DH, Goschke T, Smolka MN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Brain response during correct post-error/post-missing trials.Note that only 181 adolescents and 22 adults which made at least three mistakes were considered for this analysis. A) Regions of the brain during post-error/post-missing trials that show a significant negative correlation with overall ER (threshold T = 2.77, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels) in adolescents. B) Correlation coefficients for the correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER for adolescents (blue) and adults (orange) in the peak voxels (sorted by t-values, please see also Table S4). The correlations only reached significance in adolescents.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928333&req=5

pone-0088957-g005: Brain response during correct post-error/post-missing trials.Note that only 181 adolescents and 22 adults which made at least three mistakes were considered for this analysis. A) Regions of the brain during post-error/post-missing trials that show a significant negative correlation with overall ER (threshold T = 2.77, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels) in adolescents. B) Correlation coefficients for the correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER for adolescents (blue) and adults (orange) in the peak voxels (sorted by t-values, please see also Table S4). The correlations only reached significance in adolescents.
Mentions: We find it interesting that there was a significant negative correlation between brain response during post-error/post-missing trials and overall ER in a network of parietal and prefrontal structures (see Figure 5A, green colour scale, and Table S4), but only in adolescents. For adults there was a non-significant trend in the opposite direction (see Figure 5B). Although not significant at the predefined level, the secondary analysis at a lenient threshold revealed an interaction between ER and group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6).

Bottom Line: A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence.To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component.Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence. The precise differences in brain function between adults and adolescents with respect to cognitive control, however, remain unclear. To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component. Behavioural responses (i.e. reaction time, RT; error rate, ER) and brain activity during correct, error and post-error trials, detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were measured. Behaviourally, RT and ER were significantly higher in incongruent than in congruent trials and in switch than in repeat trials. The two groups did not differ in RT during correct trials, but adolescents had a significantly higher ER than adults. In line with similar RTs, brain responses during correct trials did not differ between groups, indicating that adolescents and adults engage the same cognitive control network to successfully overcome S-R interference or task switches. Interestingly, adolescents with stronger brain activation in the bilateral insulae during error trials and in fronto-parietal regions of the cognitive control network during post-error trials did have lower ERs. This indicates that those mid-adolescents who commit fewer errors are better at monitoring their performance, and after detecting errors are more capable of flexibly allocating further cognitive control resources. Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

Show MeSH