Limits...
Interindividual differences in mid-adolescents in error monitoring and post-error adjustment.

Rodehacke S, Mennigen E, Müller KU, Ripke S, Jacob MJ, Hübner T, Schmidt DH, Goschke T, Smolka MN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence.To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component.Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence. The precise differences in brain function between adults and adolescents with respect to cognitive control, however, remain unclear. To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component. Behavioural responses (i.e. reaction time, RT; error rate, ER) and brain activity during correct, error and post-error trials, detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were measured. Behaviourally, RT and ER were significantly higher in incongruent than in congruent trials and in switch than in repeat trials. The two groups did not differ in RT during correct trials, but adolescents had a significantly higher ER than adults. In line with similar RTs, brain responses during correct trials did not differ between groups, indicating that adolescents and adults engage the same cognitive control network to successfully overcome S-R interference or task switches. Interestingly, adolescents with stronger brain activation in the bilateral insulae during error trials and in fronto-parietal regions of the cognitive control network during post-error trials did have lower ERs. This indicates that those mid-adolescents who commit fewer errors are better at monitoring their performance, and after detecting errors are more capable of flexibly allocating further cognitive control resources. Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

Show MeSH
Brain response during correct trials.A) Main effect of task transition: Regions of the brain that respond more strongly during switch compared to repeat trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.11, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale). B) Main effect of congruence: Regions of the brain respond more strongly during congruent compared to incongruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.64, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, blue colour scale), and regions of the brain that respond more strongly during incongruent compared to congruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.97, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, red colour scale). C) Main effect of group in the subsample analysis (N = 45 error-prone adolescents and N = 28 adults): Regions of the brain that respond weaker in adolescents compared to adults (threshold T = 2.87, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928333&req=5

pone-0088957-g003: Brain response during correct trials.A) Main effect of task transition: Regions of the brain that respond more strongly during switch compared to repeat trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.11, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale). B) Main effect of congruence: Regions of the brain respond more strongly during congruent compared to incongruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.64, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, blue colour scale), and regions of the brain that respond more strongly during incongruent compared to congruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.97, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, red colour scale). C) Main effect of group in the subsample analysis (N = 45 error-prone adolescents and N = 28 adults): Regions of the brain that respond weaker in adolescents compared to adults (threshold T = 2.87, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale).

Mentions: Regarding the main effect of task transition brain responses during switch compared to repeat trials were significantly enhanced in a well-known network of parietal and prefrontal structures (Figure 3A, for details see Table S1). No significant differences were found in the opposite direction, even at a lenient threshold. Further, there was a main effect of congruence: Incongruent in contrast to congruent trials revealed significantly stronger brain responses in bilateral occipital regions, in the right MFG (BA 6), in the bilateral superior parietal lobe (BA 7) and in the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40). Contrariwise, brain responses during incongruent trials were weaker in several frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal regions (Figure 3B, for further details see Table S1).


Interindividual differences in mid-adolescents in error monitoring and post-error adjustment.

Rodehacke S, Mennigen E, Müller KU, Ripke S, Jacob MJ, Hübner T, Schmidt DH, Goschke T, Smolka MN - PLoS ONE (2014)

Brain response during correct trials.A) Main effect of task transition: Regions of the brain that respond more strongly during switch compared to repeat trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.11, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale). B) Main effect of congruence: Regions of the brain respond more strongly during congruent compared to incongruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.64, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, blue colour scale), and regions of the brain that respond more strongly during incongruent compared to congruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.97, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, red colour scale). C) Main effect of group in the subsample analysis (N = 45 error-prone adolescents and N = 28 adults): Regions of the brain that respond weaker in adolescents compared to adults (threshold T = 2.87, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928333&req=5

pone-0088957-g003: Brain response during correct trials.A) Main effect of task transition: Regions of the brain that respond more strongly during switch compared to repeat trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.11, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale). B) Main effect of congruence: Regions of the brain respond more strongly during congruent compared to incongruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.64, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, blue colour scale), and regions of the brain that respond more strongly during incongruent compared to congruent trials in adolescents and adults (threshold T = 2.97, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, red colour scale). C) Main effect of group in the subsample analysis (N = 45 error-prone adolescents and N = 28 adults): Regions of the brain that respond weaker in adolescents compared to adults (threshold T = 2.87, p<0.05, FDR-corrected, in 25 contiguous voxels, yellow colour scale).
Mentions: Regarding the main effect of task transition brain responses during switch compared to repeat trials were significantly enhanced in a well-known network of parietal and prefrontal structures (Figure 3A, for details see Table S1). No significant differences were found in the opposite direction, even at a lenient threshold. Further, there was a main effect of congruence: Incongruent in contrast to congruent trials revealed significantly stronger brain responses in bilateral occipital regions, in the right MFG (BA 6), in the bilateral superior parietal lobe (BA 7) and in the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40). Contrariwise, brain responses during incongruent trials were weaker in several frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal regions (Figure 3B, for further details see Table S1).

Bottom Line: A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence.To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component.Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Neuroimaging Center, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany ; Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Technische Universität Dresden, Dresden, Germany.

ABSTRACT
A number of studies have concluded that cognitive control is not fully established until late adolescence. The precise differences in brain function between adults and adolescents with respect to cognitive control, however, remain unclear. To address this issue, we conducted a study in which 185 adolescents (mean age (SD) 14.6 (0.3) years) and 28 adults (mean age (SD) 25.2 (6.3) years) performed a single task that included both a stimulus-response (S-R) interference component and a task-switching component. Behavioural responses (i.e. reaction time, RT; error rate, ER) and brain activity during correct, error and post-error trials, detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), were measured. Behaviourally, RT and ER were significantly higher in incongruent than in congruent trials and in switch than in repeat trials. The two groups did not differ in RT during correct trials, but adolescents had a significantly higher ER than adults. In line with similar RTs, brain responses during correct trials did not differ between groups, indicating that adolescents and adults engage the same cognitive control network to successfully overcome S-R interference or task switches. Interestingly, adolescents with stronger brain activation in the bilateral insulae during error trials and in fronto-parietal regions of the cognitive control network during post-error trials did have lower ERs. This indicates that those mid-adolescents who commit fewer errors are better at monitoring their performance, and after detecting errors are more capable of flexibly allocating further cognitive control resources. Although we did not detect a convincing neural correlate of the observed behavioural differences between adolescents and adults, the revealed interindividual differences in adolescents might at least in part be due to brain development.

Show MeSH