Limits...
Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

Piai V, Roelofs A, Jensen O, Schoffelen JM, Bonnefond M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection.Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors.Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands ; International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog) with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat), unrelated (pin), or identical (dog). Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz) in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Induced brain responses time-locked to the onset of the naming responses.The right-hand panels show the response-locked time-frequency representations of relative power change for Stroop-like (related vs. identical, upper right) and semantic (related vs. unrelated, lower right) effects, averaged over the sensors highlighted in white in the corresponding topographic maps. Dashed lines indicate the clusters.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928283&req=5

pone-0088674-g002: Induced brain responses time-locked to the onset of the naming responses.The right-hand panels show the response-locked time-frequency representations of relative power change for Stroop-like (related vs. identical, upper right) and semantic (related vs. unrelated, lower right) effects, averaged over the sensors highlighted in white in the corresponding topographic maps. Dashed lines indicate the clusters.

Mentions: The response-locked analyses yielded a similar pattern of power changes as for the stimulus-locked activity. The TFRs presented in Figure 2 show relative power increase in the 4–10 Hz range between 400–200 ms before response onset. Significant spectro-spatio-temporal clusters were detected for the Stroop-like effect (p = .004) and for the semantic effect (p = .032). The condition ordering of the power effect is in line with the condition ordering of the mean RTs (related > unrelated; related > congruent). The convergence between stimulus- and response-locked analyses indicates that the TFR effects observed were not induced by differences in the onset of (preparation of) mouth movements between the conditions compared.


Distinct patterns of brain activity characterise lexical activation and competition in spoken word production.

Piai V, Roelofs A, Jensen O, Schoffelen JM, Bonnefond M - PLoS ONE (2014)

Induced brain responses time-locked to the onset of the naming responses.The right-hand panels show the response-locked time-frequency representations of relative power change for Stroop-like (related vs. identical, upper right) and semantic (related vs. unrelated, lower right) effects, averaged over the sensors highlighted in white in the corresponding topographic maps. Dashed lines indicate the clusters.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928283&req=5

pone-0088674-g002: Induced brain responses time-locked to the onset of the naming responses.The right-hand panels show the response-locked time-frequency representations of relative power change for Stroop-like (related vs. identical, upper right) and semantic (related vs. unrelated, lower right) effects, averaged over the sensors highlighted in white in the corresponding topographic maps. Dashed lines indicate the clusters.
Mentions: The response-locked analyses yielded a similar pattern of power changes as for the stimulus-locked activity. The TFRs presented in Figure 2 show relative power increase in the 4–10 Hz range between 400–200 ms before response onset. Significant spectro-spatio-temporal clusters were detected for the Stroop-like effect (p = .004) and for the semantic effect (p = .032). The condition ordering of the power effect is in line with the condition ordering of the mean RTs (related > unrelated; related > congruent). The convergence between stimulus- and response-locked analyses indicates that the TFR effects observed were not induced by differences in the onset of (preparation of) mouth movements between the conditions compared.

Bottom Line: According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection.Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors.Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, the Netherlands ; International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences, Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

ABSTRACT
According to a prominent theory of language production, concepts activate multiple associated words in memory, which enter into competition for selection. However, only a few electrophysiological studies have identified brain responses reflecting competition. Here, we report a magnetoencephalography study in which the activation of competing words was manipulated by presenting pictures (e.g., dog) with distractor words. The distractor and picture name were semantically related (cat), unrelated (pin), or identical (dog). Related distractors are stronger competitors to the picture name because they receive additional activation from the picture relative to other distractors. Picture naming times were longer with related than unrelated and identical distractors. Phase-locked and non-phase-locked activity were distinct but temporally related. Phase-locked activity in left temporal cortex, peaking at 400 ms, was larger on unrelated than related and identical trials, suggesting differential activation of alternative words by the picture-word stimuli. Non-phase-locked activity between roughly 350-650 ms (4-10 Hz) in left superior frontal gyrus was larger on related than unrelated and identical trials, suggesting differential resolution of the competition among the alternatives, as reflected in the naming times. These findings characterise distinct patterns of activity associated with lexical activation and competition, supporting the theory that words are selected by competition.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus