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Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.

Proietti MC, Reisser J, Marins LF, Rodriguez-Zarate C, Marcovaldi MA, Monteiro DS, Pattiaratchi C, Secchi ER - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation.Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current.The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

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Locations of genetically described hawksbill populations in the Atlantic.Red triangles  =  rookeries, black squares  =  feeding grounds, *study areas described in this work. Rookeries: BS =  Bahia/Sergipe, PI =  Pipa, PP =  Principe, BB =  Barbados, GU =  Guadeloupe, AB =  Antigua & Barbuda, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, CR =  Costa Rica, NI =  Nicaragua, CU =  Cuba, MX =  Mexico. Feeding grounds: SP =  São Pedro and São Paulo, NR =  Noronha/Rocas, CE =  Ceará coast, BA =  Bahia coast, AP =  Abrolhos Park, SB =  South Brazil, PP =  Principe, CV =  Cape Verde, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, TC =  Turks & Caicos, BH =  Bahamas, FL =  Florida, CU =  Cuba, CY =  Cayman Islands, MX =  Mexico, TX =  Texas.
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pone-0088746-g001: Locations of genetically described hawksbill populations in the Atlantic.Red triangles  =  rookeries, black squares  =  feeding grounds, *study areas described in this work. Rookeries: BS =  Bahia/Sergipe, PI =  Pipa, PP =  Principe, BB =  Barbados, GU =  Guadeloupe, AB =  Antigua & Barbuda, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, CR =  Costa Rica, NI =  Nicaragua, CU =  Cuba, MX =  Mexico. Feeding grounds: SP =  São Pedro and São Paulo, NR =  Noronha/Rocas, CE =  Ceará coast, BA =  Bahia coast, AP =  Abrolhos Park, SB =  South Brazil, PP =  Principe, CV =  Cape Verde, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, TC =  Turks & Caicos, BH =  Bahamas, FL =  Florida, CU =  Cuba, CY =  Cayman Islands, MX =  Mexico, TX =  Texas.

Mentions: Skin samples were obtained from 157 immature hawksbills at five areas in Brazilian waters ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes: (1) São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSP, n = 12); (2) Abrolhos National Marine Park (Abrolhos, n = 65), (3) Ceará state coast (Ceará, n = 23); (4) Bahia state coast (Bahia, n = 32); and (5) South Brazil region, which combines the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (n = 6) and Cassino Beach (n = 19). The Arvoredo and Cassino areas were grouped due to small sample size and geographical isolation regarding the other feeding grounds. Two skin samples with approximately 4–5 mm were collected from the fore flippers of each turtle using disposable biopsy punches, and preserved in absolute alcohol. Samples were taken from turtles hand-captured by divers at SPSP, Abrolhos, and Arvoredo, as well as from individuals incidentally caught in fishing nets or stranded on beaches (alive or dead) at Ceará, Bahia, and Cassino Beach. All animals were measured (Curved Carapace Length – CCL), and live turtles were tagged with Inconel Tags (National Tag and Band Co.) using standard techniques [26], [27] prior to release. Sampling locations are shown in Figure 1.


Genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) in Brazilian waters.

Proietti MC, Reisser J, Marins LF, Rodriguez-Zarate C, Marcovaldi MA, Monteiro DS, Pattiaratchi C, Secchi ER - PLoS ONE (2014)

Locations of genetically described hawksbill populations in the Atlantic.Red triangles  =  rookeries, black squares  =  feeding grounds, *study areas described in this work. Rookeries: BS =  Bahia/Sergipe, PI =  Pipa, PP =  Principe, BB =  Barbados, GU =  Guadeloupe, AB =  Antigua & Barbuda, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, CR =  Costa Rica, NI =  Nicaragua, CU =  Cuba, MX =  Mexico. Feeding grounds: SP =  São Pedro and São Paulo, NR =  Noronha/Rocas, CE =  Ceará coast, BA =  Bahia coast, AP =  Abrolhos Park, SB =  South Brazil, PP =  Principe, CV =  Cape Verde, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, TC =  Turks & Caicos, BH =  Bahamas, FL =  Florida, CU =  Cuba, CY =  Cayman Islands, MX =  Mexico, TX =  Texas.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928279&req=5

pone-0088746-g001: Locations of genetically described hawksbill populations in the Atlantic.Red triangles  =  rookeries, black squares  =  feeding grounds, *study areas described in this work. Rookeries: BS =  Bahia/Sergipe, PI =  Pipa, PP =  Principe, BB =  Barbados, GU =  Guadeloupe, AB =  Antigua & Barbuda, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, CR =  Costa Rica, NI =  Nicaragua, CU =  Cuba, MX =  Mexico. Feeding grounds: SP =  São Pedro and São Paulo, NR =  Noronha/Rocas, CE =  Ceará coast, BA =  Bahia coast, AP =  Abrolhos Park, SB =  South Brazil, PP =  Principe, CV =  Cape Verde, UV =  U.S. Virgin Islands, PR =  Puerto Rico, DR =  Dominican Republic, TC =  Turks & Caicos, BH =  Bahamas, FL =  Florida, CU =  Cuba, CY =  Cayman Islands, MX =  Mexico, TX =  Texas.
Mentions: Skin samples were obtained from 157 immature hawksbills at five areas in Brazilian waters ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes: (1) São Pedro and São Paulo Archipelago (SPSP, n = 12); (2) Abrolhos National Marine Park (Abrolhos, n = 65), (3) Ceará state coast (Ceará, n = 23); (4) Bahia state coast (Bahia, n = 32); and (5) South Brazil region, which combines the Arvoredo Marine Biological Reserve (n = 6) and Cassino Beach (n = 19). The Arvoredo and Cassino areas were grouped due to small sample size and geographical isolation regarding the other feeding grounds. Two skin samples with approximately 4–5 mm were collected from the fore flippers of each turtle using disposable biopsy punches, and preserved in absolute alcohol. Samples were taken from turtles hand-captured by divers at SPSP, Abrolhos, and Arvoredo, as well as from individuals incidentally caught in fishing nets or stranded on beaches (alive or dead) at Ceará, Bahia, and Cassino Beach. All animals were measured (Curved Carapace Length – CCL), and live turtles were tagged with Inconel Tags (National Tag and Band Co.) using standard techniques [26], [27] prior to release. Sampling locations are shown in Figure 1.

Bottom Line: Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation.Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current.The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
Understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. Brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the Atlantic. Here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial DNA control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of Brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among Atlantic hawksbill feeding populations, and (3) inferred natal origins of hawksbills in Brazilian waters using genetic, oceanographic, and population size information. We report ten haplotypes for the sampled Brazilian sites, most of which were previously observed at other Atlantic feeding grounds and rookeries. Genetic profiles of Brazilian feeding areas were significantly different from those in other regions (Caribbean and Africa), and a significant structure was observed between Brazilian feeding grounds grouped into areas influenced by the South Equatorial/North Brazil Current and those influenced by the Brazil Current. Our genetic analysis estimates that the studied Brazilian feeding aggregations are mostly composed of animals originating from the domestic rookeries Bahia and Pipa, but some contributions from African and Caribbean rookeries were also observed. Oceanographic data corroborated the local origins, but showed higher connection with West Africa and none with the Caribbean. High correlation was observed between origins estimated through genetics/rookery size and oceanographic/rookery size data, demonstrating that ocean currents and population sizes influence haplotype distribution of Brazil's hawksbill populations. The information presented here highlights the importance of national conservation strategies and international cooperation for the recovery of endangered hawksbill turtle populations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus