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A variety of bacterial characteristics (growth in vitro, biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells, gene expression of putative EAEC virulence factors, and EAEC-induced cytokine expression by HCT-8 cells) were quantified... The authors found that at concentrations that did not alter EAEC growth (strain 042) but that are physiologic in serum, zinc markedly decreased the organism’s ability to form biofilm, adhere to IEC-6 epithelial cells and express putative EAEC virulence factors (aggR, aap, aatA and virK)... After exposure of the organism to zinc, the effect on virulence factor generation was prolonged... Further, EAEC-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein secretion by HCT-8 epithelial cells were significantly reduced by 0.05 mM zinc... Using an in vivo murine model of diet-induced zinc-deficiency, oral zinc supplementation administered after EAEC challenge significantly abrogated growth shortfalls... Furthermore, stool shedding was reduced but tissue burden of organisms in the intestine was unchanged... The study findings suggest several potential mechanisms whereby physiological levels of zinc alter pathogenetic events in the bacterium (reducing biofilm formation, adherence to epithelium and virulence factor expression) as well as the bacterium’s effect on the epithelium (cytokine response to exposure to EAEC) to alter EAEC pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo... These effects may help explain and extend the benefits of zinc in childhood diarrhea and malnutrition (Fig.  2)... A recent review by Drs Amalaradjou and Bhunia summarizes the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections... They examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and its immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics (Fig.  3)... Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have emerged as a major cause of healthcare associated disease, and recent epidemiological evidence also suggests an important role in community-acquired diarrhea.

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Figure 3. Cover of Bioengineered Volume 4, Issue 6 (November/December 2013).
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Figure 3: Figure 3. Cover of Bioengineered Volume 4, Issue 6 (November/December 2013).

Mentions: Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. Probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. However, antimicrobial probiotic action is often non-specific and non-discriminatory. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function could be a solution. A recent review by Drs Amalaradjou and Bhunia summarizes the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections. They examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and its immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics (Fig. 3).3


Landes Highlights
Figure 3. Cover of Bioengineered Volume 4, Issue 6 (November/December 2013).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928154&req=5

Figure 3: Figure 3. Cover of Bioengineered Volume 4, Issue 6 (November/December 2013).
Mentions: Enteric infections account for high morbidity and mortality and are considered to be the fifth leading cause of death at all ages worldwide. Seventy percent of all enteric infections are foodborne. Thus significant efforts have been directed toward the detection, control and prevention of foodborne diseases. Many antimicrobials including antibiotics have been used for their control and prevention. Probiotics offer a potential alternative intervention strategy owing to their general health beneficial properties and inhibitory effects against foodborne pathogens. However, antimicrobial probiotic action is often non-specific and non-discriminatory. In such cases, bioengineered probiotics expressing foreign gene products to achieve specific function could be a solution. A recent review by Drs Amalaradjou and Bhunia summarizes the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections. They examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and its immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics (Fig. 3).3

View Article: PubMed Central

AUTOMATICALLY GENERATED EXCERPT
Please rate it.

A variety of bacterial characteristics (growth in vitro, biofilm formation, adherence to epithelial cells, gene expression of putative EAEC virulence factors, and EAEC-induced cytokine expression by HCT-8 cells) were quantified... The authors found that at concentrations that did not alter EAEC growth (strain 042) but that are physiologic in serum, zinc markedly decreased the organism’s ability to form biofilm, adhere to IEC-6 epithelial cells and express putative EAEC virulence factors (aggR, aap, aatA and virK)... After exposure of the organism to zinc, the effect on virulence factor generation was prolonged... Further, EAEC-induced IL-8 mRNA and protein secretion by HCT-8 epithelial cells were significantly reduced by 0.05 mM zinc... Using an in vivo murine model of diet-induced zinc-deficiency, oral zinc supplementation administered after EAEC challenge significantly abrogated growth shortfalls... Furthermore, stool shedding was reduced but tissue burden of organisms in the intestine was unchanged... The study findings suggest several potential mechanisms whereby physiological levels of zinc alter pathogenetic events in the bacterium (reducing biofilm formation, adherence to epithelium and virulence factor expression) as well as the bacterium’s effect on the epithelium (cytokine response to exposure to EAEC) to alter EAEC pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo... These effects may help explain and extend the benefits of zinc in childhood diarrhea and malnutrition (Fig.  2)... A recent review by Drs Amalaradjou and Bhunia summarizes the strategic development of recombinant bioengineered probiotics to control enteric infections... They examine how scientific advancements in the human microbiome and its immunomodulatory effects help develop such novel and safe bioengineered probiotics (Fig.  3)... Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have emerged as a major cause of healthcare associated disease, and recent epidemiological evidence also suggests an important role in community-acquired diarrhea.

No MeSH data available.