Limits...
Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

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Annual cycles of NEP (A), TWU (B), GWUE (C), and EWUE (D), for average conditions and for years under anomalous climate conditions (dry 2006 and wet 2009).Vertical bars denote the interquartile range.
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pone-0088130-g007: Annual cycles of NEP (A), TWU (B), GWUE (C), and EWUE (D), for average conditions and for years under anomalous climate conditions (dry 2006 and wet 2009).Vertical bars denote the interquartile range.

Mentions: The dry season of 2006 presented a higher reduction on carbon and water fluxes compared to the usual reduction observed during a typical dry season (Figure 7). The impact of the drought of 2005 was strongest at this ecosystem during the dry season of 2006. Water limitations from September to November of 2005 likely reduced the recharge of soils to the next year. This impact is evident in the average daily cycle of NEP, its relation to PAR, and the daily cycle of latent heat flux (LE) in Figure 6. To further explore the effects of this climate extreme, the monthly variability of NEP and TWU for 2006 was compared with the average cycles and with the wet year of 2009 (Figure 7A, B). In addition, the annual cycles of two water use efficiency ratios were investigated for both extreme years.


Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Annual cycles of NEP (A), TWU (B), GWUE (C), and EWUE (D), for average conditions and for years under anomalous climate conditions (dry 2006 and wet 2009).Vertical bars denote the interquartile range.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928111&req=5

pone-0088130-g007: Annual cycles of NEP (A), TWU (B), GWUE (C), and EWUE (D), for average conditions and for years under anomalous climate conditions (dry 2006 and wet 2009).Vertical bars denote the interquartile range.
Mentions: The dry season of 2006 presented a higher reduction on carbon and water fluxes compared to the usual reduction observed during a typical dry season (Figure 7). The impact of the drought of 2005 was strongest at this ecosystem during the dry season of 2006. Water limitations from September to November of 2005 likely reduced the recharge of soils to the next year. This impact is evident in the average daily cycle of NEP, its relation to PAR, and the daily cycle of latent heat flux (LE) in Figure 6. To further explore the effects of this climate extreme, the monthly variability of NEP and TWU for 2006 was compared with the average cycles and with the wet year of 2009 (Figure 7A, B). In addition, the annual cycles of two water use efficiency ratios were investigated for both extreme years.

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus