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Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Monthly averages (median) of meteorological drivers.A: air temperature; B: vapor pressure deficit; C: maximum value of incoming PAR at noon; D: accumulated rainfall.
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pone-0088130-g003: Monthly averages (median) of meteorological drivers.A: air temperature; B: vapor pressure deficit; C: maximum value of incoming PAR at noon; D: accumulated rainfall.

Mentions: The most important meteorological drivers of fluxes (air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, radiation and precipitation) for the period of 2004 to 2010 are shown in Figure 3. On average, air temperature (Figure 3A) was ≈25°C, from January to March and November to December, and ≈27°C, from July to September. Vapor pressure deficit (Figure 3B) was highest, i.e. drier conditions, from June to October, the same period of the year when incoming PAR was maximal (Figure 3C). The high values of VPD and PAR are in synchronicity with the dry season at this site, as can be noticed by reduced precipitation in the period from May to October (Figure 3D). The remainder of the year is characterized by abundant rainfall, contributing to lower values of air temperature, VPD and PAR, the latter caused by overcast skies.


Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Monthly averages (median) of meteorological drivers.A: air temperature; B: vapor pressure deficit; C: maximum value of incoming PAR at noon; D: accumulated rainfall.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928111&req=5

pone-0088130-g003: Monthly averages (median) of meteorological drivers.A: air temperature; B: vapor pressure deficit; C: maximum value of incoming PAR at noon; D: accumulated rainfall.
Mentions: The most important meteorological drivers of fluxes (air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, radiation and precipitation) for the period of 2004 to 2010 are shown in Figure 3. On average, air temperature (Figure 3A) was ≈25°C, from January to March and November to December, and ≈27°C, from July to September. Vapor pressure deficit (Figure 3B) was highest, i.e. drier conditions, from June to October, the same period of the year when incoming PAR was maximal (Figure 3C). The high values of VPD and PAR are in synchronicity with the dry season at this site, as can be noticed by reduced precipitation in the period from May to October (Figure 3D). The remainder of the year is characterized by abundant rainfall, contributing to lower values of air temperature, VPD and PAR, the latter caused by overcast skies.

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus