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Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

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Location of the tower marked with the red star in the detail.The old tower was located at approximately 14 km northwest of the current location (orange star). Satellite picture recorded by Landsat 7 on October 1st 2002.
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pone-0088130-g001: Location of the tower marked with the red star in the detail.The old tower was located at approximately 14 km northwest of the current location (orange star). Satellite picture recorded by Landsat 7 on October 1st 2002.

Mentions: Measurements were carried out at the Jaru Biological Reserve, near the city of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, Brazil (Figure 1). Authorization for field studies in this area was provided by IBAMA (National Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources). The tower was mounted in 2004 at the location marked with the red star in Figure 1 (10° 11' 21.2712" S, 61° 52' 15.1674" W, at 145 m above sea level), which is approximately 14 km south-southeast of the old location (orange star, zoomed in detail) up until November of 2002. The old tower, which was disassembled in 2002, was used in several experiments and studies [10], [26], [30]–[39] of the LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) project [30], [34], [40]. The forest was previously characterized as an open tropical rain forest with leaf area index ranging from 4 to 6 m2 m−2[30], [41]. Trees are 35 m high, on average, but some reached up to 45 m. Soil depth at the old site ranged from 1 – 2 m and its texture was classified as sandy loam [30].


Variability of carbon and water fluxes following climate extremes over a tropical forest in southwestern Amazonia.

Zeri M, Sá LD, Manzi AO, Araújo AC, Aguiar RG, von Randow C, Sampaio G, Cardoso FL, Nobre CA - PLoS ONE (2014)

Location of the tower marked with the red star in the detail.The old tower was located at approximately 14 km northwest of the current location (orange star). Satellite picture recorded by Landsat 7 on October 1st 2002.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3928111&req=5

pone-0088130-g001: Location of the tower marked with the red star in the detail.The old tower was located at approximately 14 km northwest of the current location (orange star). Satellite picture recorded by Landsat 7 on October 1st 2002.
Mentions: Measurements were carried out at the Jaru Biological Reserve, near the city of Ji-Paraná, Rondônia, Brazil (Figure 1). Authorization for field studies in this area was provided by IBAMA (National Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources). The tower was mounted in 2004 at the location marked with the red star in Figure 1 (10° 11' 21.2712" S, 61° 52' 15.1674" W, at 145 m above sea level), which is approximately 14 km south-southeast of the old location (orange star, zoomed in detail) up until November of 2002. The old tower, which was disassembled in 2002, was used in several experiments and studies [10], [26], [30]–[39] of the LBA (Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia) project [30], [34], [40]. The forest was previously characterized as an open tropical rain forest with leaf area index ranging from 4 to 6 m2 m−2[30], [41]. Trees are 35 m high, on average, but some reached up to 45 m. Soil depth at the old site ranged from 1 – 2 m and its texture was classified as sandy loam [30].

Bottom Line: The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency.Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere.Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Centro de Ciência do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, Cachoeira Paulista, SP, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The carbon and water cycles for a southwestern Amazonian forest site were investigated using the longest time series of fluxes of CO2 and water vapor ever reported for this site. The period from 2004 to 2010 included two severe droughts (2005 and 2010) and a flooding year (2009). The effects of such climate extremes were detected in annual sums of fluxes as well as in other components of the carbon and water cycles, such as gross primary production and water use efficiency. Gap-filling and flux-partitioning were applied in order to fill gaps due to missing data, and errors analysis made it possible to infer the uncertainty on the carbon balance. Overall, the site was found to have a net carbon uptake of ≈5 t C ha(-1) year(-1), but the effects of the drought of 2005 were still noticed in 2006, when the climate disturbance caused the site to become a net source of carbon to the atmosphere. Different regions of the Amazon forest might respond differently to climate extremes due to differences in dry season length, annual precipitation, species compositions, albedo and soil type. Longer time series of fluxes measured over several locations are required to better characterize the effects of climate anomalies on the carbon and water balances for the whole Amazon region. Such valuable datasets can also be used to calibrate biogeochemical models and infer on future scenarios of the Amazon forest carbon balance under the influence of climate change.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus