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Influence of chronic exercise on carotid atherosclerosis in marathon runners.

Taylor BA, Zaleski AL, Capizzi JA, Ballard KD, Troyanos C, Baggish AL, D'Hemecourt PA, Dada MR, Thompson PD - BMJ Open (2014)

Bottom Line: The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions).The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model.Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Henry Low Heart Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The effect of habitual, high-intensity exercise training on the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. We assessed indices of vascular health (central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness as well as carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)) in addition to cardiovascular risk factors of trained runners versus their untrained spouses or partners to evaluate the impact of exercise on the development of carotid atherosclerosis.

Setting: field study at Boston Marathon.

Participants: 42 qualifiers (mean age±SD: 46±13 years, 21 women) for the 2012 Boston Marathon and their sedentary domestic controls (46±12 years, n=21 women).

Outcomes: We measured medical and running history, vital signs, anthropometrics, blood lipids, C reactive protein (CRP), 10 years Framingham risk, central arterial stiffness and SBP and cIMT.

Results: Multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including CRP, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, body weight and body mass index (all p<0.05), were reduced in the runners. The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions). The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model.

Conclusions: Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Relationships between age and left carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT, A) and right cIMT (B) with data points represented for each individual participant and r2 value shown for the entire sample. Solid line indicates regression line for runners; dashed line indicates regression line for controls.
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BMJOPEN2013004498F1: Relationships between age and left carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT, A) and right cIMT (B) with data points represented for each individual participant and r2 value shown for the entire sample. Solid line indicates regression line for runners; dashed line indicates regression line for controls.

Mentions: Neither left nor right cIMT differed between runners and controls (p=0.31 and 0.53, respectively). The left (figure 1A) and right (figure 1B) cIMT were associated with age and Framingham risk score (figure 2A,B, respectively) independent of group effects or interactions (all p>0.08), and age and Framingham risk score were the only significant predictors of cIMT in a multiple linear regression model. To explore whether (in runners only) years spent running influenced the effect of chronic exercise on cIMT, we controlled for years running in a partial correlation analysis of age or Framingham risk score versus the left and right cIMT. However, in this analysis, the left and right cIMT were still associated with age and Framingham risk score, suggesting that years spent running did not influence the relationships between exercise, age, disease risk and cIMT.


Influence of chronic exercise on carotid atherosclerosis in marathon runners.

Taylor BA, Zaleski AL, Capizzi JA, Ballard KD, Troyanos C, Baggish AL, D'Hemecourt PA, Dada MR, Thompson PD - BMJ Open (2014)

Relationships between age and left carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT, A) and right cIMT (B) with data points represented for each individual participant and r2 value shown for the entire sample. Solid line indicates regression line for runners; dashed line indicates regression line for controls.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927935&req=5

BMJOPEN2013004498F1: Relationships between age and left carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT, A) and right cIMT (B) with data points represented for each individual participant and r2 value shown for the entire sample. Solid line indicates regression line for runners; dashed line indicates regression line for controls.
Mentions: Neither left nor right cIMT differed between runners and controls (p=0.31 and 0.53, respectively). The left (figure 1A) and right (figure 1B) cIMT were associated with age and Framingham risk score (figure 2A,B, respectively) independent of group effects or interactions (all p>0.08), and age and Framingham risk score were the only significant predictors of cIMT in a multiple linear regression model. To explore whether (in runners only) years spent running influenced the effect of chronic exercise on cIMT, we controlled for years running in a partial correlation analysis of age or Framingham risk score versus the left and right cIMT. However, in this analysis, the left and right cIMT were still associated with age and Framingham risk score, suggesting that years spent running did not influence the relationships between exercise, age, disease risk and cIMT.

Bottom Line: The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions).The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model.Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Cardiology, Henry Low Heart Center, Hartford Hospital, Hartford, Connecticut, USA.

ABSTRACT

Objectives: The effect of habitual, high-intensity exercise training on the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. We assessed indices of vascular health (central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness as well as carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)) in addition to cardiovascular risk factors of trained runners versus their untrained spouses or partners to evaluate the impact of exercise on the development of carotid atherosclerosis.

Setting: field study at Boston Marathon.

Participants: 42 qualifiers (mean age±SD: 46±13 years, 21 women) for the 2012 Boston Marathon and their sedentary domestic controls (46±12 years, n=21 women).

Outcomes: We measured medical and running history, vital signs, anthropometrics, blood lipids, C reactive protein (CRP), 10 years Framingham risk, central arterial stiffness and SBP and cIMT.

Results: Multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including CRP, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, body weight and body mass index (all p<0.05), were reduced in the runners. The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions). The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model.

Conclusions: Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus