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Spatial gradients in cell wall composition and transcriptional profiles along elongating maize internodes.

Zhang Q, Cheetamun R, Dhugga KS, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV, Shirley NJ, Taylor J, Hayes K, Beatty M, Bacic A, Burton RA, Fincher GB - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Bottom Line: Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones.Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections.The data indicated that the enzymic products of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification remain active right along the maturation zone of elongating maize internodes, despite the fact that corresponding transcript levels peak earlier, near or in the transition zone.

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Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, 5064 Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. geoff.fincher@adelaide.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and elongation zones contain mainly primary walls, while secondary cell wall deposition accelerates in the transition zone and predominates in the maturation zone.

Results: The major wall components cellulose, lignin and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) increased without any abrupt changes across the elongation, transition and maturation zones, although GAX appeared to increase more between the elongation and transition zones. Microarray analyses show that transcript abundance of key glycosyl transferase genes known to be involved in wall synthesis or re-modelling did not match the increases in cellulose, GAX and lignin. Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections. Genes with transcript profiles showing this pattern included secondary cell wall CesA genes, GT43 genes, some β-expansins, UDP-Xylose synthase and UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase, some xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases, genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and NAM and MYB transcription factor genes.

Conclusions: The data indicated that the enzymic products of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification remain active right along the maturation zone of elongating maize internodes, despite the fact that corresponding transcript levels peak earlier, near or in the transition zone.

Show MeSH
Principal component analyses of internode microarray data. All genes (A) and genes involved in cell wall synthesis, re-modelling and degradation (B). MultiExperiment Viewer software was used for PCA and construction of the graphs (http://www.tm4.org). S1-1: Section S1 replicate 1; S2-4: Section S2 replicate 4; S9-3: Section S9 replicate 9.
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Figure 3: Principal component analyses of internode microarray data. All genes (A) and genes involved in cell wall synthesis, re-modelling and degradation (B). MultiExperiment Viewer software was used for PCA and construction of the graphs (http://www.tm4.org). S1-1: Section S1 replicate 1; S2-4: Section S2 replicate 4; S9-3: Section S9 replicate 9.

Mentions: Principal component analysis (PCA) of microarray data for all genes revealed three properties of gene transcription profiles of the samples (Figure 3A). Firstly, sample replicates were clustered in single groups, indicating that sample preparation was reproducible and the microarray data were reliable for further analysis. Secondly, transcription patterns differed in the sections containing the meristem, the elongation zone and the transition zone. Thirdly, transcripts from Sections S6 to S10 of the maturation zone formed a single cluster (Figure 3A).


Spatial gradients in cell wall composition and transcriptional profiles along elongating maize internodes.

Zhang Q, Cheetamun R, Dhugga KS, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV, Shirley NJ, Taylor J, Hayes K, Beatty M, Bacic A, Burton RA, Fincher GB - BMC Plant Biol. (2014)

Principal component analyses of internode microarray data. All genes (A) and genes involved in cell wall synthesis, re-modelling and degradation (B). MultiExperiment Viewer software was used for PCA and construction of the graphs (http://www.tm4.org). S1-1: Section S1 replicate 1; S2-4: Section S2 replicate 4; S9-3: Section S9 replicate 9.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927872&req=5

Figure 3: Principal component analyses of internode microarray data. All genes (A) and genes involved in cell wall synthesis, re-modelling and degradation (B). MultiExperiment Viewer software was used for PCA and construction of the graphs (http://www.tm4.org). S1-1: Section S1 replicate 1; S2-4: Section S2 replicate 4; S9-3: Section S9 replicate 9.
Mentions: Principal component analysis (PCA) of microarray data for all genes revealed three properties of gene transcription profiles of the samples (Figure 3A). Firstly, sample replicates were clustered in single groups, indicating that sample preparation was reproducible and the microarray data were reliable for further analysis. Secondly, transcription patterns differed in the sections containing the meristem, the elongation zone and the transition zone. Thirdly, transcripts from Sections S6 to S10 of the maturation zone formed a single cluster (Figure 3A).

Bottom Line: Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones.Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections.The data indicated that the enzymic products of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification remain active right along the maturation zone of elongating maize internodes, despite the fact that corresponding transcript levels peak earlier, near or in the transition zone.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence in Plant Cell Walls, School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, 5064 Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. geoff.fincher@adelaide.edu.au.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and elongation zones contain mainly primary walls, while secondary cell wall deposition accelerates in the transition zone and predominates in the maturation zone.

Results: The major wall components cellulose, lignin and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) increased without any abrupt changes across the elongation, transition and maturation zones, although GAX appeared to increase more between the elongation and transition zones. Microarray analyses show that transcript abundance of key glycosyl transferase genes known to be involved in wall synthesis or re-modelling did not match the increases in cellulose, GAX and lignin. Rather, transcript levels of many of these genes were low in the meristematic and elongation zones, quickly increased to maximal levels in the transition zone and lower sections of the maturation zone, and generally decreased in the upper maturation zone sections. Genes with transcript profiles showing this pattern included secondary cell wall CesA genes, GT43 genes, some β-expansins, UDP-Xylose synthase and UDP-Glucose pyrophosphorylase, some xyloglucan endotransglycosylases/hydrolases, genes involved in monolignol biosynthesis, and NAM and MYB transcription factor genes.

Conclusions: The data indicated that the enzymic products of genes involved in cell wall synthesis and modification remain active right along the maturation zone of elongating maize internodes, despite the fact that corresponding transcript levels peak earlier, near or in the transition zone.

Show MeSH