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Diverse effects of lead nitrate on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression of stem cells isolated from a dental origin.

Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Bottom Line: We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner.There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes.Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Cytotoxic effect of Pb2+ to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), deciduous stem cells (SCDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLs), and permanent stem cells (DPSCs); phase contrast microscope; 10x magnification of BM-MSCs, SCDs, PDLs, and DPSCs in presence of various concentrations of Pb2+. In all experiments, the results represent average of five culture replicates with standard deviation and a representative photomicrograph was given for each experiment.
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fig1: Cytotoxic effect of Pb2+ to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), deciduous stem cells (SCDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLs), and permanent stem cells (DPSCs); phase contrast microscope; 10x magnification of BM-MSCs, SCDs, PDLs, and DPSCs in presence of various concentrations of Pb2+. In all experiments, the results represent average of five culture replicates with standard deviation and a representative photomicrograph was given for each experiment.

Mentions: BM-MSCs, SCDs, DPSCs, and PDLs cultured in controlled conditions maintained a small and spindle-shape morphology and a similar observation was seen in cells exposed to 10 μM of Pb2+ (Figure 1). However, BM-MSCs began to canalize and loose its cell texture and shape as well as displaying granule-like structures as the concentration of Pb2+ increased to 160 μM. SCDs, DPSCs, and PDLs exhibited similar appearances but with a lesser degree.


Diverse effects of lead nitrate on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression of stem cells isolated from a dental origin.

Abdullah M, Rahman FA, Gnanasegaran N, Govindasamy V, Abu Kasim NH, Musa S - ScientificWorldJournal (2014)

Cytotoxic effect of Pb2+ to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), deciduous stem cells (SCDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLs), and permanent stem cells (DPSCs); phase contrast microscope; 10x magnification of BM-MSCs, SCDs, PDLs, and DPSCs in presence of various concentrations of Pb2+. In all experiments, the results represent average of five culture replicates with standard deviation and a representative photomicrograph was given for each experiment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927845&req=5

fig1: Cytotoxic effect of Pb2+ to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs), deciduous stem cells (SCDs), periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLs), and permanent stem cells (DPSCs); phase contrast microscope; 10x magnification of BM-MSCs, SCDs, PDLs, and DPSCs in presence of various concentrations of Pb2+. In all experiments, the results represent average of five culture replicates with standard deviation and a representative photomicrograph was given for each experiment.
Mentions: BM-MSCs, SCDs, DPSCs, and PDLs cultured in controlled conditions maintained a small and spindle-shape morphology and a similar observation was seen in cells exposed to 10 μM of Pb2+ (Figure 1). However, BM-MSCs began to canalize and loose its cell texture and shape as well as displaying granule-like structures as the concentration of Pb2+ increased to 160 μM. SCDs, DPSCs, and PDLs exhibited similar appearances but with a lesser degree.

Bottom Line: We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner.There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes.Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

ABSTRACT
Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus