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History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

Waenerlund AK, Gustafsson PE, Hammarström A, Virtanen P, Northern Swedish Coho - BMJ Open (2014)

Bottom Line: The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001).Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status.

Design: Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort.

Setting and participants: All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included.

Measures: Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires.

Results: We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: 'permanent', 'high level', 'strengthening' and 'poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Collapsed tracks of labour market attachment history; permanent, high-level, strengthening and poor attachment.
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BMJOPEN2013004053F2: Collapsed tracks of labour market attachment history; permanent, high-level, strengthening and poor attachment.

Mentions: Figure 1 illustrates the ‘labour market tracks’ based on means of the LMA scores at each time point of the individuals classified into each trajectory. Individuals on track 1 (3% of the cohort) also were excluded, as they were mainly disability pension recipients and their health was poor by definition. The track (6) of ‘permanent’ employment throughout the follow-up included more than half of the cohort, whereas the remaining six clusters were relatively small and there were relatively similar tracks. We collapsed these six clusters into three as follows. A considerable part (classes 2 and 3) maintained a continuously ‘high level’ of attachment, and about 12% (classes 5 and 7) displayed a ‘strengthening’ of attachment towards the end of the follow-up. The attachment was permanently weak in about 1 of 10 (class 8), and a small cluster with a U-shaped pattern (class 4) was also seen; we decided to collapse these clusters and defined their attachment as ‘poor’. In addition to being substantially grounded, this collapsing provided statistical power for subsequent analyses. Thus, we arrived at a four class ‘LMA history’ variable that comprised ‘permanent’ (class 6), ‘high level’ (classes 2 and 3), ‘strengthening’ (classes 5 and 7) and ‘poor’ (classes 4 and 8) LMA (figure 2).


History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort.

Waenerlund AK, Gustafsson PE, Hammarström A, Virtanen P, Northern Swedish Coho - BMJ Open (2014)

Collapsed tracks of labour market attachment history; permanent, high-level, strengthening and poor attachment.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927714&req=5

BMJOPEN2013004053F2: Collapsed tracks of labour market attachment history; permanent, high-level, strengthening and poor attachment.
Mentions: Figure 1 illustrates the ‘labour market tracks’ based on means of the LMA scores at each time point of the individuals classified into each trajectory. Individuals on track 1 (3% of the cohort) also were excluded, as they were mainly disability pension recipients and their health was poor by definition. The track (6) of ‘permanent’ employment throughout the follow-up included more than half of the cohort, whereas the remaining six clusters were relatively small and there were relatively similar tracks. We collapsed these six clusters into three as follows. A considerable part (classes 2 and 3) maintained a continuously ‘high level’ of attachment, and about 12% (classes 5 and 7) displayed a ‘strengthening’ of attachment towards the end of the follow-up. The attachment was permanently weak in about 1 of 10 (class 8), and a small cluster with a U-shaped pattern (class 4) was also seen; we decided to collapse these clusters and defined their attachment as ‘poor’. In addition to being substantially grounded, this collapsing provided statistical power for subsequent analyses. Thus, we arrived at a four class ‘LMA history’ variable that comprised ‘permanent’ (class 6), ‘high level’ (classes 2 and 3), ‘strengthening’ (classes 5 and 7) and ‘poor’ (classes 4 and 8) LMA (figure 2).

Bottom Line: The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001).Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

ABSTRACT

Objective: The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12 years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status.

Design: Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort.

Setting and participants: All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Luleå in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included.

Measures: Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires.

Results: We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: 'permanent', 'high level', 'strengthening' and 'poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus