Limits...
The life cycle of Drosophila orphan genes.

Palmieri N, Kosiol C, Schlötterer C - Elife (2014)

Bottom Line: Interestingly, recently emerged orphans are more likely to be lost than older ones.Furthermore, highly expressed orphans with a strong male-bias are more likely to be retained.Since both lost and retained orphans show similar evolutionary signatures of functional conservation, we propose that orphan loss is not driven by high rates of sequence evolution, but reflects lineage-specific functional requirements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Populationsgenetik, Vetmeduni Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Orphans are genes restricted to a single phylogenetic lineage and emerge at high rates. While this predicts an accumulation of genes, the gene number has remained remarkably constant through evolution. This paradox has not yet been resolved. Because orphan genes have been mainly analyzed over long evolutionary time scales, orphan loss has remained unexplored. Here we study the patterns of orphan turnover among close relatives in the Drosophila obscura group. We show that orphans are not only emerging at a high rate, but that they are also rapidly lost. Interestingly, recently emerged orphans are more likely to be lost than older ones. Furthermore, highly expressed orphans with a strong male-bias are more likely to be retained. Since both lost and retained orphans show similar evolutionary signatures of functional conservation, we propose that orphan loss is not driven by high rates of sequence evolution, but reflects lineage-specific functional requirements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.001.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.Sex-biased expression was measured in D. pseudoobscura for orphans belonging to different age classes and for old genes (age class 5).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.022
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927632&req=5

fig17: The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.Sex-biased expression was measured in D. pseudoobscura for orphans belonging to different age classes and for old genes (age class 5).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.022

Mentions: Orphan genes are frequently expressed in the testis (Levine et al., 2006; Begun et al., 2007) and have a male-biased gene expression pattern (Metta and Schlötterer, 2008). This pattern could be generated by pervasive gene expression in testis, which facilitates the functional recruitment of non-specific expression (Kaessmann, 2010). Another explanation is that expression in testis does not require a complex architecture of regulatory modules (Sassone-Corsi, 2002; Kleene, 2005; Kaessmann, 2010), so that fewer substitutions are required to obtain a functional regulatory module for expressing a novel gene in testis compared to other tissues. We scrutinized these explanations by comparing the fraction of male-biased genes among orphan genes from different age classes. Unexpectedly, the fraction of male-biased genes increases with the age of the orphan genes (Figure 17). This increase of male-biased orphans among the older age classes is the result of a preferential loss of orphans with an unbiased gene expression (Figure 18). To confirm that male-biased gene expression is associated with orphan retention rather than emergence, we analyzed the sex-bias in D. miranda for orphans with and without an open reading frame. Consistent with the gene expression pattern in D. pseudoobscura, we found that lost orphans have a significantly lower male-bias in D. miranda (Figure 19). We conclude that the previously reported male-biased gene expression of orphan genes is not the result of a preferential recruitment of male-biased transcripts, nor do orphans gradually acquire male-biased gene expression. Rather, male-biased orphans are more likely to be retained.10.7554/eLife.01311.022Figure 17.The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.


The life cycle of Drosophila orphan genes.

Palmieri N, Kosiol C, Schlötterer C - Elife (2014)

The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.Sex-biased expression was measured in D. pseudoobscura for orphans belonging to different age classes and for old genes (age class 5).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.022
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927632&req=5

fig17: The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.Sex-biased expression was measured in D. pseudoobscura for orphans belonging to different age classes and for old genes (age class 5).DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.022
Mentions: Orphan genes are frequently expressed in the testis (Levine et al., 2006; Begun et al., 2007) and have a male-biased gene expression pattern (Metta and Schlötterer, 2008). This pattern could be generated by pervasive gene expression in testis, which facilitates the functional recruitment of non-specific expression (Kaessmann, 2010). Another explanation is that expression in testis does not require a complex architecture of regulatory modules (Sassone-Corsi, 2002; Kleene, 2005; Kaessmann, 2010), so that fewer substitutions are required to obtain a functional regulatory module for expressing a novel gene in testis compared to other tissues. We scrutinized these explanations by comparing the fraction of male-biased genes among orphan genes from different age classes. Unexpectedly, the fraction of male-biased genes increases with the age of the orphan genes (Figure 17). This increase of male-biased orphans among the older age classes is the result of a preferential loss of orphans with an unbiased gene expression (Figure 18). To confirm that male-biased gene expression is associated with orphan retention rather than emergence, we analyzed the sex-bias in D. miranda for orphans with and without an open reading frame. Consistent with the gene expression pattern in D. pseudoobscura, we found that lost orphans have a significantly lower male-bias in D. miranda (Figure 19). We conclude that the previously reported male-biased gene expression of orphan genes is not the result of a preferential recruitment of male-biased transcripts, nor do orphans gradually acquire male-biased gene expression. Rather, male-biased orphans are more likely to be retained.10.7554/eLife.01311.022Figure 17.The proportion of male-biased orphans increases with age.

Bottom Line: Interestingly, recently emerged orphans are more likely to be lost than older ones.Furthermore, highly expressed orphans with a strong male-bias are more likely to be retained.Since both lost and retained orphans show similar evolutionary signatures of functional conservation, we propose that orphan loss is not driven by high rates of sequence evolution, but reflects lineage-specific functional requirements.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institut für Populationsgenetik, Vetmeduni Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT
Orphans are genes restricted to a single phylogenetic lineage and emerge at high rates. While this predicts an accumulation of genes, the gene number has remained remarkably constant through evolution. This paradox has not yet been resolved. Because orphan genes have been mainly analyzed over long evolutionary time scales, orphan loss has remained unexplored. Here we study the patterns of orphan turnover among close relatives in the Drosophila obscura group. We show that orphans are not only emerging at a high rate, but that they are also rapidly lost. Interestingly, recently emerged orphans are more likely to be lost than older ones. Furthermore, highly expressed orphans with a strong male-bias are more likely to be retained. Since both lost and retained orphans show similar evolutionary signatures of functional conservation, we propose that orphan loss is not driven by high rates of sequence evolution, but reflects lineage-specific functional requirements. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01311.001.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus