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Involvement of Type IV Pili in Pathogenicity of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

Burdman S, Bahar O, Parker JK, De La Fuente L - Genes (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Type IV pili (T4P) are hair-like appendages found on the surface of a wide range of bacteria belonging to the β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes.They constitute an efficient device for a particular type of bacterial surface motility, named twitching, and are involved in several other bacterial activities and functions, including surface adherence, colonization, biofilm formation, genetic material uptake and virulence.Only in recent years studies have begun to examine with more attention the relevance of these surface appendages for virulence of plant bacterial pathogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and the Otto Warburg Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. saulb@agri.huji.ac.il.

ABSTRACT
Type IV pili (T4P) are hair-like appendages found on the surface of a wide range of bacteria belonging to the β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. They constitute an efficient device for a particular type of bacterial surface motility, named twitching, and are involved in several other bacterial activities and functions, including surface adherence, colonization, biofilm formation, genetic material uptake and virulence. Tens of genes are involved in T4P synthesis and regulation, with the majority of them being generally named pil/fim genes. Despite the multiple functionality of T4P and their well-established role in pathogenicity of animal pathogenic bacteria, relatively little attention has been given to the role of T4P in plant pathogenic bacteria. Only in recent years studies have begun to examine with more attention the relevance of these surface appendages for virulence of plant bacterial pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about T4P genetic machinery and its role in the interactions between phytopathogenic bacteria and their plant hosts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Atomic force micrograph of Xylella fastidiosa “Temecula” wild-type cells. Yellow arrows indicate T4P, while red arrows indicate shorter type I pili. Both types of pili are present at the same cell pole.
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f3-genes-02-00706: Atomic force micrograph of Xylella fastidiosa “Temecula” wild-type cells. Yellow arrows indicate T4P, while red arrows indicate shorter type I pili. Both types of pili are present at the same cell pole.

Mentions: In X. fastidiosa, 1.0 to 5.8 μm long T4P are positioned at one of the cell's poles, while in the same pole, shorter (0.4 to 1.0 μm long) type I pili (T1P) are also present [98,102] (Figure 3). Mutational analysis of a T4P gene cluster showed that mutants in pilB and pilT [98], as well as in fimT, pilX and pilO [102], did not form T4P and were non-motile. Some of these mutants were not able to colonize upstream regions of grapevines [98]. Infection studies of grape plants in the greenhouse showed that T4P defective mutants were still infective, although symptoms were delayed and localized at the point of inoculation and did not spread along the vines [103]. Mutants in pilY1, believed to produce an adhesin located at the tip of T4P, showed reduced motility [102,104]. MFC studies showed that the speed of twitching motility against the flow of pilY1 defective mutants was one third of that of the wild type [104]. These data suggest that lack of PilY1 may cause cells to “slip”, compromising efficient attachment to surfaces and slowing the rates of twitching motility. In the same study, a mutant in T1P moved seven times faster than the wild type. T1P is important for efficient attachment to surfaces, and seems to restrict the speed of T4P-mediated twitching motility in X. fastidiosa [104].


Involvement of Type IV Pili in Pathogenicity of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

Burdman S, Bahar O, Parker JK, De La Fuente L - Genes (Basel) (2011)

Atomic force micrograph of Xylella fastidiosa “Temecula” wild-type cells. Yellow arrows indicate T4P, while red arrows indicate shorter type I pili. Both types of pili are present at the same cell pole.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927602&req=5

f3-genes-02-00706: Atomic force micrograph of Xylella fastidiosa “Temecula” wild-type cells. Yellow arrows indicate T4P, while red arrows indicate shorter type I pili. Both types of pili are present at the same cell pole.
Mentions: In X. fastidiosa, 1.0 to 5.8 μm long T4P are positioned at one of the cell's poles, while in the same pole, shorter (0.4 to 1.0 μm long) type I pili (T1P) are also present [98,102] (Figure 3). Mutational analysis of a T4P gene cluster showed that mutants in pilB and pilT [98], as well as in fimT, pilX and pilO [102], did not form T4P and were non-motile. Some of these mutants were not able to colonize upstream regions of grapevines [98]. Infection studies of grape plants in the greenhouse showed that T4P defective mutants were still infective, although symptoms were delayed and localized at the point of inoculation and did not spread along the vines [103]. Mutants in pilY1, believed to produce an adhesin located at the tip of T4P, showed reduced motility [102,104]. MFC studies showed that the speed of twitching motility against the flow of pilY1 defective mutants was one third of that of the wild type [104]. These data suggest that lack of PilY1 may cause cells to “slip”, compromising efficient attachment to surfaces and slowing the rates of twitching motility. In the same study, a mutant in T1P moved seven times faster than the wild type. T1P is important for efficient attachment to surfaces, and seems to restrict the speed of T4P-mediated twitching motility in X. fastidiosa [104].

Bottom Line: Type IV pili (T4P) are hair-like appendages found on the surface of a wide range of bacteria belonging to the β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes.They constitute an efficient device for a particular type of bacterial surface motility, named twitching, and are involved in several other bacterial activities and functions, including surface adherence, colonization, biofilm formation, genetic material uptake and virulence.Only in recent years studies have begun to examine with more attention the relevance of these surface appendages for virulence of plant bacterial pathogens.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Plant Pathology and Microbiology and the Otto Warburg Center for Agricultural Biotechnology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. saulb@agri.huji.ac.il.

ABSTRACT
Type IV pili (T4P) are hair-like appendages found on the surface of a wide range of bacteria belonging to the β-, γ-, and δ-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. They constitute an efficient device for a particular type of bacterial surface motility, named twitching, and are involved in several other bacterial activities and functions, including surface adherence, colonization, biofilm formation, genetic material uptake and virulence. Tens of genes are involved in T4P synthesis and regulation, with the majority of them being generally named pil/fim genes. Despite the multiple functionality of T4P and their well-established role in pathogenicity of animal pathogenic bacteria, relatively little attention has been given to the role of T4P in plant pathogenic bacteria. Only in recent years studies have begun to examine with more attention the relevance of these surface appendages for virulence of plant bacterial pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about T4P genetic machinery and its role in the interactions between phytopathogenic bacteria and their plant hosts.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus