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Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

Kassim IA, Moloney G, Busili A, Nur AY, Paron P, Jooste P, Gadain H, Seal AJ - J. Nutr. (2014)

Bottom Line: Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001).Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria.Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

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Proportion of households in Somalia possessing iodized salt (n = 2345). NEZ, Northeast Zone; NWZ, Northwest Zone; SCZ, South Central Zone.
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fig2: Proportion of households in Somalia possessing iodized salt (n = 2345). NEZ, Northeast Zone; NWZ, Northwest Zone; SCZ, South Central Zone.

Mentions: To assess exposure to iodized salt, samples from 2345 households were tested by using a rapid test kit. Fig. 2 shows the percentage of households in which the tested salt sampled contained iodine. It can be seen that the overall coverage of salt iodization was low at 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%), and where it does occur a large proportion was inadequately iodized, with concentrations <15 mg/kg. Household salt iodization was only recorded with any frequency in the SCZ, where 6.7% of samples were fortified at concentrations ≥15 mg/kg and 5.4% of samples were fortified at concentrations <15 mg/kg. In this zone, exposure to iodized salt was associated with a significantly increased median UIC in women (770 vs. 281 μg/L; Mann-Whitney, P = 0.001) and in SAC (1260 vs. 366 μg/L; Mann-Whitney, P < 0.001). The 4 clusters where salt iodization exceeded 20% coverage were all located adjacent to the Kenyan border in the area of El Wak.


Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

Kassim IA, Moloney G, Busili A, Nur AY, Paron P, Jooste P, Gadain H, Seal AJ - J. Nutr. (2014)

Proportion of households in Somalia possessing iodized salt (n = 2345). NEZ, Northeast Zone; NWZ, Northwest Zone; SCZ, South Central Zone.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927550&req=5

fig2: Proportion of households in Somalia possessing iodized salt (n = 2345). NEZ, Northeast Zone; NWZ, Northwest Zone; SCZ, South Central Zone.
Mentions: To assess exposure to iodized salt, samples from 2345 households were tested by using a rapid test kit. Fig. 2 shows the percentage of households in which the tested salt sampled contained iodine. It can be seen that the overall coverage of salt iodization was low at 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%), and where it does occur a large proportion was inadequately iodized, with concentrations <15 mg/kg. Household salt iodization was only recorded with any frequency in the SCZ, where 6.7% of samples were fortified at concentrations ≥15 mg/kg and 5.4% of samples were fortified at concentrations <15 mg/kg. In this zone, exposure to iodized salt was associated with a significantly increased median UIC in women (770 vs. 281 μg/L; Mann-Whitney, P = 0.001) and in SAC (1260 vs. 366 μg/L; Mann-Whitney, P < 0.001). The 4 clusters where salt iodization exceeded 20% coverage were all located adjacent to the Kenyan border in the area of El Wak.

Bottom Line: Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001).Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria.Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus