Limits...
Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

Kassim IA, Moloney G, Busili A, Nur AY, Paron P, Jooste P, Gadain H, Seal AJ - J. Nutr. (2014)

Bottom Line: Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001).Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria.Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

Show MeSH

Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution of urinary iodine concentrations for women (A; n = 617) and school-aged children (B; n = 756) in Somalia by geographic zone. NE, Northeast; NW, Northwest; SC, South Central.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927550&req=5

fig1: Distribution of urinary iodine concentrations for women (A; n = 617) and school-aged children (B; n = 756) in Somalia by geographic zone. NE, Northeast; NW, Northwest; SC, South Central.

Mentions: The close correlation between the categories of UIC in women and SAC is shown in Fig. 1, with the proportion showing a UIC indicative of excessive iodine intake being higher in SAC than in women in all 3 zones. Overall, a high proportion of participants showed a UIC indicative of excessive intake. This was seen in all 3 zones where 43.9%, 62.4%, and 52.1% of samples from women and 48.5%, 76.3%, and 63.1% of samples from SAC in the NWZ, NEZ, and SCZ, respectively, were categorized as having excessive intakes. In both population groups, the highest proportion of participants with a UIC >300 μg/L was found in the NEZ. In the weighted national estimate, 51.7% of women and 61.6% of SAC had a UIC indicating excessive intake.


Iodine intake in Somalia is excessive and associated with the source of household drinking water.

Kassim IA, Moloney G, Busili A, Nur AY, Paron P, Jooste P, Gadain H, Seal AJ - J. Nutr. (2014)

Distribution of urinary iodine concentrations for women (A; n = 617) and school-aged children (B; n = 756) in Somalia by geographic zone. NE, Northeast; NW, Northwest; SC, South Central.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927550&req=5

fig1: Distribution of urinary iodine concentrations for women (A; n = 617) and school-aged children (B; n = 756) in Somalia by geographic zone. NE, Northeast; NW, Northwest; SC, South Central.
Mentions: The close correlation between the categories of UIC in women and SAC is shown in Fig. 1, with the proportion showing a UIC indicative of excessive iodine intake being higher in SAC than in women in all 3 zones. Overall, a high proportion of participants showed a UIC indicative of excessive intake. This was seen in all 3 zones where 43.9%, 62.4%, and 52.1% of samples from women and 48.5%, 76.3%, and 63.1% of samples from SAC in the NWZ, NEZ, and SCZ, respectively, were categorized as having excessive intakes. In both population groups, the highest proportion of participants with a UIC >300 μg/L was found in the NEZ. In the weighted national estimate, 51.7% of women and 61.6% of SAC had a UIC indicating excessive intake.

Bottom Line: Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001).Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria.Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.

ABSTRACT
Few data on iodine status in Somalia are available, but it is assumed that deficiency is a public health problem due to the limited access to iodized salt. We aimed to describe the iodine status of the population of Somalia and to investigate possible determinants of iodine status. A national 2-stage, stratified household cluster survey was conducted in 2009 in the Northwest, Northeast, and South Central Zones of Somalia. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was determined in samples from women (aged 15-45 y) and children (aged 6-11 y), and examination for visible goiter was performed in the Northwest and South Central strata. A 24-h household food-frequency questionnaire was conducted, and salt samples were tested for iodization. The median UICs for nonpregnant women and children were 329 and 416 μg/L, respectively, indicating excessive iodine intake (>300 μg/L). The prevalence of visible goiter was <4%. The coverage of salt iodization was low, with a national average of 7.7% (95% CI: 3.2%, 17.4%). Spatial analysis revealed localized areas of relatively high and low iodine status. Variations could not be explained by food consumption or salt iodization but were associated with the main source of household drinking water, with consumers of borehole water having a higher UIC (569 vs. 385 μg/L; P < 0.001). Iodine intake in Somalia is among the highest in the world and excessive according to WHO criteria. Further work is required to investigate the geochemistry and safety of groundwater sources in Somalia and the impact on human nutrition and health.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus