Limits...
Low Concentrations of Flavonoid - Rich Fraction of Shallot Extract Induce Delayed - Type Hypersensitivity and TH1 Cytokine IFNγ Expression in BALB/c Mice.

Farhadi L, Mohammadi-Motlagh HR, Seyfi P, Mostafaie A - Int J Mol Cell Med (2014)

Bottom Line: The evaluation of the extract and its EA fraction on DTH responses indicated that both caused a significant increase in DTH response.Furthermore, they triggered significant increases in IFNγ and decreases in interleukin (IL)-4 production by splenic mononuclear cells.Because of the significant immunomodulatory activity displayed in these studies, it is plausible that shallot could have a potential use as an immunomodulatory agent in clinical settings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are potentially immunomodulatory factors and it may be inferred that these phytochemicals contribute to immunomodulatory properties of the Allium family. In the present study, we investigated the potential mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of shallot and its ethyl acetate (EA) fraction as flavonoid-rich sources. Ex vivo, effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of shallot, its fractions and quercetin on lymphocyte viability were evaluated. The proliferative effects of the fractions were examined using naive mouse lymphocytes to determine the fraction with highest impact/ activity. In addition, in a mouse model, both delayed- type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and production of a key cytokine (interferon [IFN]-ᵧ) were evaluated. Both the shallot extract and its fractions inhibited lymphocytes cell growth and survival in a concentration- dependent manner. The findings also showed that the extract and especially the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction could induce lymphocyte proliferation. The evaluation of the extract and its EA fraction on DTH responses indicated that both caused a significant increase in DTH response. Furthermore, they triggered significant increases in IFNγ and decreases in interleukin (IL)-4 production by splenic mononuclear cells. Because of the significant immunomodulatory activity displayed in these studies, it is plausible that shallot could have a potential use as an immunomodulatory agent in clinical settings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

In vitro effect of (A) hydroalcoholic extract of shallot or (B) EA fraction on proliferation of naïve mouse splenic MNC. Cell proliferation was estimated using an MTT assay. The data shown are the means (± SEM) of three independent experiments. *P <  0.05
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927387&req=5

Figure 2: In vitro effect of (A) hydroalcoholic extract of shallot or (B) EA fraction on proliferation of naïve mouse splenic MNC. Cell proliferation was estimated using an MTT assay. The data shown are the means (± SEM) of three independent experiments. *P <  0.05

Mentions: The studies here also examined the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of shallot and its fractions (and also quercetin, as positive control) on proliferation of lymphocytes  within the MNC populations. The results indicated that the shallot extract at 10 and 25 µg/ ml led to increases in ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation (Figure 2A). The EA fraction, which had the highest activity among all the shallot sub-fractions, could significantly induce the proliferation at doses of 100 and 300 ng/ ml (Figure 2B). The other fractions, as well as the quercetin, had proliferative effects that mirrored the trends noted in the cytotoxicity outcomes (data not shown).


Low Concentrations of Flavonoid - Rich Fraction of Shallot Extract Induce Delayed - Type Hypersensitivity and TH1 Cytokine IFNγ Expression in BALB/c Mice.

Farhadi L, Mohammadi-Motlagh HR, Seyfi P, Mostafaie A - Int J Mol Cell Med (2014)

In vitro effect of (A) hydroalcoholic extract of shallot or (B) EA fraction on proliferation of naïve mouse splenic MNC. Cell proliferation was estimated using an MTT assay. The data shown are the means (± SEM) of three independent experiments. *P <  0.05
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927387&req=5

Figure 2: In vitro effect of (A) hydroalcoholic extract of shallot or (B) EA fraction on proliferation of naïve mouse splenic MNC. Cell proliferation was estimated using an MTT assay. The data shown are the means (± SEM) of three independent experiments. *P <  0.05
Mentions: The studies here also examined the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of shallot and its fractions (and also quercetin, as positive control) on proliferation of lymphocytes  within the MNC populations. The results indicated that the shallot extract at 10 and 25 µg/ ml led to increases in ConA-induced lymphocyte proliferation (Figure 2A). The EA fraction, which had the highest activity among all the shallot sub-fractions, could significantly induce the proliferation at doses of 100 and 300 ng/ ml (Figure 2B). The other fractions, as well as the quercetin, had proliferative effects that mirrored the trends noted in the cytotoxicity outcomes (data not shown).

Bottom Line: The evaluation of the extract and its EA fraction on DTH responses indicated that both caused a significant increase in DTH response.Furthermore, they triggered significant increases in IFNγ and decreases in interleukin (IL)-4 production by splenic mononuclear cells.Because of the significant immunomodulatory activity displayed in these studies, it is plausible that shallot could have a potential use as an immunomodulatory agent in clinical settings.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

ABSTRACT
Flavonoids are potentially immunomodulatory factors and it may be inferred that these phytochemicals contribute to immunomodulatory properties of the Allium family. In the present study, we investigated the potential mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of shallot and its ethyl acetate (EA) fraction as flavonoid-rich sources. Ex vivo, effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of shallot, its fractions and quercetin on lymphocyte viability were evaluated. The proliferative effects of the fractions were examined using naive mouse lymphocytes to determine the fraction with highest impact/ activity. In addition, in a mouse model, both delayed- type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and production of a key cytokine (interferon [IFN]-ᵧ) were evaluated. Both the shallot extract and its fractions inhibited lymphocytes cell growth and survival in a concentration- dependent manner. The findings also showed that the extract and especially the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction could induce lymphocyte proliferation. The evaluation of the extract and its EA fraction on DTH responses indicated that both caused a significant increase in DTH response. Furthermore, they triggered significant increases in IFNγ and decreases in interleukin (IL)-4 production by splenic mononuclear cells. Because of the significant immunomodulatory activity displayed in these studies, it is plausible that shallot could have a potential use as an immunomodulatory agent in clinical settings.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus