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A cryptic species of the Tylonycteris pachypus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and its population genetic structure in southern China and nearby regions.

Huang C, Yu W, Xu Z, Qiu Y, Chen M, Qiu B, Motokawa M, Harada M, Li Y, Wu Y - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2014)

Bottom Line: Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern.These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species.Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. College of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

ABSTRACT
Three distinct bamboo bat species (Tylonycteris) are known to inhabit tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, i.e., T. pachypus, T. robustula, and T. pygmaeus. This study performed karyotypic examinations of 4 specimens from southern Chinese T. p. fulvidus populations and one specimen from Thai T. p. fulvidus population, which detected distinct karyotypes (2n=30) compared with previous karyotypic descriptions of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from Malaysia. This finding suggested a cryptic Tylonycteris species within T. pachypus complex in China and Thailand. Morphometric studies indicated the difficulty in distinguishing the cryptic species and T. p. pachypus from Indonesia apart from the external measurements, which might be the reason for their historical misidentification. Based on 623 bp mtDNA COI segments, a phylogeographic examination including T. pachypus individuals from China and nearby regions, i.e., Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, was conducted to examine the population genetic structure. Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern. These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species. Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China. Given the similarity of vegetation and climate of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, we suggested that such differences might be derived from their historical adaptation or distinct evolutionary history rather than the differences of habitats they occurred currently.

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The karyotypes of Tylonycteris pachypus fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi, and T. robustula from Guangxi analyzed in this study. Conventional (A, no. 2000156), G-banded (B, no. 2000156), and C-banded (C, no. 2000156) karyotypes of T. p. fulvidus from Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China; conventional (D, no. 10230) karyotype of T. p. fulvidus from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China; conventional (E, no. 10229) karyotype of T. robustula from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China.
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Figure 2: The karyotypes of Tylonycteris pachypus fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi, and T. robustula from Guangxi analyzed in this study. Conventional (A, no. 2000156), G-banded (B, no. 2000156), and C-banded (C, no. 2000156) karyotypes of T. p. fulvidus from Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China; conventional (D, no. 10230) karyotype of T. p. fulvidus from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China; conventional (E, no. 10229) karyotype of T. robustula from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China.

Mentions: Chromosome numbers of T. p. fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi of China were 2n=30, FN=56 (Table 2; Fig. 2A-D), which was identical with the karyotypic features from Thai sample. There were eight large metacentric or submetacentric pairs, two pairs of small submetacentrics, four pairs of medium to small subtelocentrics in the autosomes, with a medium-sized subtelocentric X and a small, submetacentric Y chromosome (Table 2; Fig. 2A-D). One autosome pairs of subtelocentric chromosome (no. 12) had secondary constrictions adjacent to the centromere (Fig. 2A-D). The chromosome number of T. robustula from Guangxi province was 2n=32, FN=52 (Table 2; Fig. 2E). There were eight metacentric or subumetacentric pairs, one pair of small submetacentrics, two pairs of subtelocentrics and four pairs of acrocentrics in the autosomes, with a medium-sized acrocentric X chromosome (Table 2; Fig. 2E). The diploid number, the placement of centromeres, and the size of the biarmed elements of T. p. fulvidus from China and Thailand differed from the chromosomes of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from the Malayan Peninsula 45 and Guangxi province (Table 2).


A cryptic species of the Tylonycteris pachypus complex (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) and its population genetic structure in southern China and nearby regions.

Huang C, Yu W, Xu Z, Qiu Y, Chen M, Qiu B, Motokawa M, Harada M, Li Y, Wu Y - Int. J. Biol. Sci. (2014)

The karyotypes of Tylonycteris pachypus fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi, and T. robustula from Guangxi analyzed in this study. Conventional (A, no. 2000156), G-banded (B, no. 2000156), and C-banded (C, no. 2000156) karyotypes of T. p. fulvidus from Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China; conventional (D, no. 10230) karyotype of T. p. fulvidus from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China; conventional (E, no. 10229) karyotype of T. robustula from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3927132&req=5

Figure 2: The karyotypes of Tylonycteris pachypus fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi, and T. robustula from Guangxi analyzed in this study. Conventional (A, no. 2000156), G-banded (B, no. 2000156), and C-banded (C, no. 2000156) karyotypes of T. p. fulvidus from Guangzhou, Guangdong province, China; conventional (D, no. 10230) karyotype of T. p. fulvidus from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China; conventional (E, no. 10229) karyotype of T. robustula from Chongzuo, Guangxi province, China.
Mentions: Chromosome numbers of T. p. fulvidus from Guangdong and Guangxi of China were 2n=30, FN=56 (Table 2; Fig. 2A-D), which was identical with the karyotypic features from Thai sample. There were eight large metacentric or submetacentric pairs, two pairs of small submetacentrics, four pairs of medium to small subtelocentrics in the autosomes, with a medium-sized subtelocentric X and a small, submetacentric Y chromosome (Table 2; Fig. 2A-D). One autosome pairs of subtelocentric chromosome (no. 12) had secondary constrictions adjacent to the centromere (Fig. 2A-D). The chromosome number of T. robustula from Guangxi province was 2n=32, FN=52 (Table 2; Fig. 2E). There were eight metacentric or subumetacentric pairs, one pair of small submetacentrics, two pairs of subtelocentrics and four pairs of acrocentrics in the autosomes, with a medium-sized acrocentric X chromosome (Table 2; Fig. 2E). The diploid number, the placement of centromeres, and the size of the biarmed elements of T. p. fulvidus from China and Thailand differed from the chromosomes of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from the Malayan Peninsula 45 and Guangxi province (Table 2).

Bottom Line: Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern.These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species.Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1. College of Life Sciences, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, China.

ABSTRACT
Three distinct bamboo bat species (Tylonycteris) are known to inhabit tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, i.e., T. pachypus, T. robustula, and T. pygmaeus. This study performed karyotypic examinations of 4 specimens from southern Chinese T. p. fulvidus populations and one specimen from Thai T. p. fulvidus population, which detected distinct karyotypes (2n=30) compared with previous karyotypic descriptions of T. p. pachypus (2n=46) and T. robustula (2n=32) from Malaysia. This finding suggested a cryptic Tylonycteris species within T. pachypus complex in China and Thailand. Morphometric studies indicated the difficulty in distinguishing the cryptic species and T. p. pachypus from Indonesia apart from the external measurements, which might be the reason for their historical misidentification. Based on 623 bp mtDNA COI segments, a phylogeographic examination including T. pachypus individuals from China and nearby regions, i.e., Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia, was conducted to examine the population genetic structure. Genealogical and phylogeographical results indicated that at least two diverged lineages existed in these regions (average 3.4 % of Kimura 2-parameter distances) and their population structure did not match the geographic pattern. These results suggested that at least two historical colonizations have occurred by the cryptic species. Furthermore, through integration of traditional and geometric morphological results, morphological differences on zygomatic arches, toothrows and bullae were detected between two lineages in China. Given the similarity of vegetation and climate of Guangdong and Guangxi regions, we suggested that such differences might be derived from their historical adaptation or distinct evolutionary history rather than the differences of habitats they occurred currently.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus