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Global health in the 21st century.

Laaser U, Brand H - Glob Health Action (2014)

Bottom Line: Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides.For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world.Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Federation of Public Health Associations, c/o IGH/CMU, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany; ulrich.laaser@uni-bielefeld.de.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides.

Review: For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world. Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand. Civil society, as an indispensable activator of public health development, mainly represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is characterised by a high degree of fragmentation and lack of public accountability. The World Federation of Public Health Associations is used as an example of an NGO with a global mission and fostering regional cooperation as an indispensable intermediate level.The lack of a globally valid terminology of basic public health functions is prohibitive for coordinated global and regional efforts. Attempts to harmonise essential public health functions, services and operations are under way to facilitate communication and mutual understanding.

Recommendations: 1) Given the limited effects of the Millennium Development Goal agenda, the Post-2015 Development Goals should focus on integrated regional development. 2) A code of conduct for NGOs should be urgently developed for the health sector, and NGOs should be registered and accredited. 3) The harmonisation of the basic terminology for global public health essentials should be enhanced.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Years of life lost (YLL), years lost to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by region (2001) (from reference (9)).
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Figure 0001: Years of life lost (YLL), years lost to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by region (2001) (from reference (9)).

Mentions: Estimates of the BoD, a technique developed mainly by Murray and Lopez (e.g. 7, 8), constitute the most important, although not exclusive, measure to compare populations’ health across the globe in terms of a global BoD. The BoD is usually expressed in the form of years of life lost (YLL) in comparison to a set optimum (Japanese women) and years lost to disability (YLD), summed up together as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Fig. 1 shows the global distribution of these parameters: in high-income countries we find less than 200 DALYs/1,000 population, in sub-Saharan Africa 500, and an even greater contrast of about 4:1 for YLL considered separately (9).


Global health in the 21st century.

Laaser U, Brand H - Glob Health Action (2014)

Years of life lost (YLL), years lost to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by region (2001) (from reference (9)).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3926989&req=5

Figure 0001: Years of life lost (YLL), years lost to disability (YLD) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) by region (2001) (from reference (9)).
Mentions: Estimates of the BoD, a technique developed mainly by Murray and Lopez (e.g. 7, 8), constitute the most important, although not exclusive, measure to compare populations’ health across the globe in terms of a global BoD. The BoD is usually expressed in the form of years of life lost (YLL) in comparison to a set optimum (Japanese women) and years lost to disability (YLD), summed up together as disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. Fig. 1 shows the global distribution of these parameters: in high-income countries we find less than 200 DALYs/1,000 population, in sub-Saharan Africa 500, and an even greater contrast of about 4:1 for YLL considered separately (9).

Bottom Line: Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides.For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world.Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: World Federation of Public Health Associations, c/o IGH/CMU, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany; ulrich.laaser@uni-bielefeld.de.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the end of the 1990s, globalization has become a common term, facilitated by the social media of today and the growing public awareness of life-threatening problems common to all people, such as global warming, global security and global divides.

Review: For the main parameters of health like the burden of disease, life expectancy and healthy life expectancy, extreme discrepancies are observed across the world. Infant mortality, malnutrition and high fertility go hand in hand. Civil society, as an indispensable activator of public health development, mainly represented by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), is characterised by a high degree of fragmentation and lack of public accountability. The World Federation of Public Health Associations is used as an example of an NGO with a global mission and fostering regional cooperation as an indispensable intermediate level.The lack of a globally valid terminology of basic public health functions is prohibitive for coordinated global and regional efforts. Attempts to harmonise essential public health functions, services and operations are under way to facilitate communication and mutual understanding.

Recommendations: 1) Given the limited effects of the Millennium Development Goal agenda, the Post-2015 Development Goals should focus on integrated regional development. 2) A code of conduct for NGOs should be urgently developed for the health sector, and NGOs should be registered and accredited. 3) The harmonisation of the basic terminology for global public health essentials should be enhanced.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus