Limits...
Prospects and limitations of using endogenous neural stem cells for brain regeneration.

Kaneko N, Kako E, Sawamoto K - Genes (Basel) (2011)

Bottom Line: Recent studies have revealed that NSCs also reside in the adult brain.The endogenous NSCs are activated in response to disease or trauma, and produce new neurons and glia, suggesting they have the potential to regenerate damaged brain tissue while avoiding the above-mentioned problems.Here we present an overview of the possibility and limitations of using endogenous NSCs in regenerative medicine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan. naokoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of producing a variety of neural cell types, and are indispensable for the development of the mammalian brain. NSCs can be induced in vitro from pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells. Although the transplantation of these exogenous NSCs is a potential strategy for improving presently untreatable neurological conditions, there are several obstacles to its implementation, including tumorigenic, immunological, and ethical problems. Recent studies have revealed that NSCs also reside in the adult brain. The endogenous NSCs are activated in response to disease or trauma, and produce new neurons and glia, suggesting they have the potential to regenerate damaged brain tissue while avoiding the above-mentioned problems. Here we present an overview of the possibility and limitations of using endogenous NSCs in regenerative medicine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

NSCs in the hippocampus. (a) Location, structure, and neuronal circuitry of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the adult rodent brain. The input to the hippocampus is mainly provided by the entorhinal cortex through the perforant path (gray) to the granule cells (pink) in the dentate gyrus; (b) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. NSCs (blue) and neuronal progenitor cells (light green) reside in the SGZ, where they proliferate, and generate immature new neurons (red) (left). The new neurons migrate into the granule cell layer (middle), where some of them differentiate into mature granule cells (pink), and the rest are eliminated by apoptotic cell death (gray) (right).
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f2-genes-02-00107: NSCs in the hippocampus. (a) Location, structure, and neuronal circuitry of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the adult rodent brain. The input to the hippocampus is mainly provided by the entorhinal cortex through the perforant path (gray) to the granule cells (pink) in the dentate gyrus; (b) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. NSCs (blue) and neuronal progenitor cells (light green) reside in the SGZ, where they proliferate, and generate immature new neurons (red) (left). The new neurons migrate into the granule cell layer (middle), where some of them differentiate into mature granule cells (pink), and the rest are eliminated by apoptotic cell death (gray) (right).

Mentions: The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, which has important functions in learning and memory and in regulating emotion and mood. Neuronal input from the neocortex to the hippocampal circuitry passes through the dentate gyrus, which is largely composed of neurons called granule cells inhabiting the granule cell layer (GCL) (Figure 2a). NSCs, referred to as type-1 cells, reside in the SGZ, a thin cell layer between the GCL and the dentate hilus, and slowly proliferate to generate intermediate neuronal progenitors, type-2 and type-3 cells [31]; these cells produce new neurons [32–34] (Figure 2b). After a short-distance migration into the granule cell layer overlying the SGZ, the new neurons finally differentiate into mature granule cells, which are glutamatergic neurons, and are integrated into the neural circuitry [35].


Prospects and limitations of using endogenous neural stem cells for brain regeneration.

Kaneko N, Kako E, Sawamoto K - Genes (Basel) (2011)

NSCs in the hippocampus. (a) Location, structure, and neuronal circuitry of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the adult rodent brain. The input to the hippocampus is mainly provided by the entorhinal cortex through the perforant path (gray) to the granule cells (pink) in the dentate gyrus; (b) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. NSCs (blue) and neuronal progenitor cells (light green) reside in the SGZ, where they proliferate, and generate immature new neurons (red) (left). The new neurons migrate into the granule cell layer (middle), where some of them differentiate into mature granule cells (pink), and the rest are eliminated by apoptotic cell death (gray) (right).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924842&req=5

f2-genes-02-00107: NSCs in the hippocampus. (a) Location, structure, and neuronal circuitry of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus of the adult rodent brain. The input to the hippocampus is mainly provided by the entorhinal cortex through the perforant path (gray) to the granule cells (pink) in the dentate gyrus; (b) Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. NSCs (blue) and neuronal progenitor cells (light green) reside in the SGZ, where they proliferate, and generate immature new neurons (red) (left). The new neurons migrate into the granule cell layer (middle), where some of them differentiate into mature granule cells (pink), and the rest are eliminated by apoptotic cell death (gray) (right).
Mentions: The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, which has important functions in learning and memory and in regulating emotion and mood. Neuronal input from the neocortex to the hippocampal circuitry passes through the dentate gyrus, which is largely composed of neurons called granule cells inhabiting the granule cell layer (GCL) (Figure 2a). NSCs, referred to as type-1 cells, reside in the SGZ, a thin cell layer between the GCL and the dentate hilus, and slowly proliferate to generate intermediate neuronal progenitors, type-2 and type-3 cells [31]; these cells produce new neurons [32–34] (Figure 2b). After a short-distance migration into the granule cell layer overlying the SGZ, the new neurons finally differentiate into mature granule cells, which are glutamatergic neurons, and are integrated into the neural circuitry [35].

Bottom Line: Recent studies have revealed that NSCs also reside in the adult brain.The endogenous NSCs are activated in response to disease or trauma, and produce new neurons and glia, suggesting they have the potential to regenerate damaged brain tissue while avoiding the above-mentioned problems.Here we present an overview of the possibility and limitations of using endogenous NSCs in regenerative medicine.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Institute of Molecular Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Aichi 467-8601, Japan. naokoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp.

ABSTRACT
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are capable of producing a variety of neural cell types, and are indispensable for the development of the mammalian brain. NSCs can be induced in vitro from pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and induced-pluripotent stem cells. Although the transplantation of these exogenous NSCs is a potential strategy for improving presently untreatable neurological conditions, there are several obstacles to its implementation, including tumorigenic, immunological, and ethical problems. Recent studies have revealed that NSCs also reside in the adult brain. The endogenous NSCs are activated in response to disease or trauma, and produce new neurons and glia, suggesting they have the potential to regenerate damaged brain tissue while avoiding the above-mentioned problems. Here we present an overview of the possibility and limitations of using endogenous NSCs in regenerative medicine.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus