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Poultry farm vulnerability and risk of avian influenza re-emergence in Thailand.

Souris M, Selenic D, Khaklang S, Ninphanomchai S, Minet G, Gonzalez JP, Kittayapong P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease.Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms.Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004-2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Excellence for Vectors and Vector Borne Diseases, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University at Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Marc.Souris@ird.fr.

ABSTRACT
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations) as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs) are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004-2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Most significant cluster of vulnerability (yellow), farms sector 2 and 3, and most significant cluster (red) of 2004–2008 H5N1 HPAI outbreaks, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand.
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ijerph-11-00934-f006: Most significant cluster of vulnerability (yellow), farms sector 2 and 3, and most significant cluster (red) of 2004–2008 H5N1 HPAI outbreaks, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand.

Mentions: Spatial analysis was performed to help in identifying further contributing factors in environment or geographic context or organization of space. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the spatial distribution of the vulnerability score for layer farms and for meat farms. Significant global spatial autocorrelation of global vulnerability score (Z-score > 1.96) is found within a short radius for the spatial weight used in the spatial autocorrelation index (search radius up to 10 km). With automatic cluster detection using a spatial statistic scan, we found a most significant spatial cluster for the vulnerability score in our study, and this cluster is spatially close to the most significant cluster of the H5N1 HPAI cases that occurred during the epidemics from 2004 to 2008, and automatically detected with the same technique (Figure 6). Local spatial association is also found (Figure 7), showing again a clustered pattern, especially for high level of vulnerability.


Poultry farm vulnerability and risk of avian influenza re-emergence in Thailand.

Souris M, Selenic D, Khaklang S, Ninphanomchai S, Minet G, Gonzalez JP, Kittayapong P - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Most significant cluster of vulnerability (yellow), farms sector 2 and 3, and most significant cluster (red) of 2004–2008 H5N1 HPAI outbreaks, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924483&req=5

ijerph-11-00934-f006: Most significant cluster of vulnerability (yellow), farms sector 2 and 3, and most significant cluster (red) of 2004–2008 H5N1 HPAI outbreaks, Nakhon Pathom province, Thailand.
Mentions: Spatial analysis was performed to help in identifying further contributing factors in environment or geographic context or organization of space. Figure 4 and Figure 5 show the spatial distribution of the vulnerability score for layer farms and for meat farms. Significant global spatial autocorrelation of global vulnerability score (Z-score > 1.96) is found within a short radius for the spatial weight used in the spatial autocorrelation index (search radius up to 10 km). With automatic cluster detection using a spatial statistic scan, we found a most significant spatial cluster for the vulnerability score in our study, and this cluster is spatially close to the most significant cluster of the H5N1 HPAI cases that occurred during the epidemics from 2004 to 2008, and automatically detected with the same technique (Figure 6). Local spatial association is also found (Figure 7), showing again a clustered pattern, especially for high level of vulnerability.

Bottom Line: The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease.Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms.Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004-2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center of Excellence for Vectors and Vector Borne Diseases, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University at Salaya, Nakhon Pathom 73170, Thailand. Marc.Souris@ird.fr.

ABSTRACT
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) remains of concern as a major potential global threat. This article evaluates and discusses the level of vulnerability of medium and small-scale commercial poultry production systems in Thailand related to avian influenza virus re-emergence. We developed a survey on 173 farms in Nakhon Pathom province to identify the global level of vulnerability of farms, and to determine which type of farms appears to be more vulnerable. We used official regulations (the Good Agricultural Practices and Livestock Farm Standards regulations) as a reference to check whether these regulations are respected. The results show that numerous vulnerability factors subsist and could represent, in case of HPAI re-emergence, a significant risk for a large spread of the disease. Bio-security, farm management and agro-commercial practices are particularly significant on that matter: results show that these practices still need a thorough improvement on a majority of farms. Farms producing eggs (especially duck eggs) are more vulnerable than farms producing meat. Those results are consistent with the type of farms that were mostly affected during the 2004-2008 outbreaks in Thailand.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus