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Toxicity of gutkha, a smokeless tobacco product gone global: is there more to the toxicity than nicotine?

Willis DN, Popovech MA, Gany F, Hoffman C, Blum JL, Zelikoff JT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products.Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls).As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd., Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA. Daniel.willis@nyumc.org.

ABSTRACT
The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day), via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL) of either sterile water (control), a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine), or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha). Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls). These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Overall body weight change after exposure for 3 week to either water, nicotine or gutkha. Body weight decreased in gutkha-exposed mice compared to controls (p < 0.05), but not in mice exposed to nicotine alone. n = 7–12 animals/group.
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ijerph-11-00919-f003: Overall body weight change after exposure for 3 week to either water, nicotine or gutkha. Body weight decreased in gutkha-exposed mice compared to controls (p < 0.05), but not in mice exposed to nicotine alone. n = 7–12 animals/group.

Mentions: All mice were weighed daily before each exposure and then again immediately prior to sacrifice. When body weight (BW) on day one of treatment was compared to BW of each mouse from a given treatment group 3 weeks later on the day of sacrifice, body weight gain was significantly reduced in gutkha treated animals compared with control and the nicotine-treated group (Figure 3). No difference was observed between percent BW gain of control- and nicotine-treated group. BW of gutkha-treated mice was decreased by 0.1 (±1.3%) following treatment for 3 week, while BW of control and nicotine treated mice was increased over time by 5.6 (±1.3%) and 6.5 (±3.0%), respectively.


Toxicity of gutkha, a smokeless tobacco product gone global: is there more to the toxicity than nicotine?

Willis DN, Popovech MA, Gany F, Hoffman C, Blum JL, Zelikoff JT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Overall body weight change after exposure for 3 week to either water, nicotine or gutkha. Body weight decreased in gutkha-exposed mice compared to controls (p < 0.05), but not in mice exposed to nicotine alone. n = 7–12 animals/group.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924482&req=5

ijerph-11-00919-f003: Overall body weight change after exposure for 3 week to either water, nicotine or gutkha. Body weight decreased in gutkha-exposed mice compared to controls (p < 0.05), but not in mice exposed to nicotine alone. n = 7–12 animals/group.
Mentions: All mice were weighed daily before each exposure and then again immediately prior to sacrifice. When body weight (BW) on day one of treatment was compared to BW of each mouse from a given treatment group 3 weeks later on the day of sacrifice, body weight gain was significantly reduced in gutkha treated animals compared with control and the nicotine-treated group (Figure 3). No difference was observed between percent BW gain of control- and nicotine-treated group. BW of gutkha-treated mice was decreased by 0.1 (±1.3%) following treatment for 3 week, while BW of control and nicotine treated mice was increased over time by 5.6 (±1.3%) and 6.5 (±3.0%), respectively.

Bottom Line: However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products.Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls).As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd., Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA. Daniel.willis@nyumc.org.

ABSTRACT
The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day), via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL) of either sterile water (control), a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine), or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha). Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls). These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus