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Toxicity of gutkha, a smokeless tobacco product gone global: is there more to the toxicity than nicotine?

Willis DN, Popovech MA, Gany F, Hoffman C, Blum JL, Zelikoff JT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Bottom Line: However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products.Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls).As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd., Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA. Daniel.willis@nyumc.org.

ABSTRACT
The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day), via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL) of either sterile water (control), a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine), or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha). Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls). These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Mice treated for 3 week with either nicotine or gutkha had elevated serum cotinine levels. Cotinine levels in water-treated control mice were below assay detection limits at all time points evaluated. Data represented as means +/− standard deviation, n = 3 mice/group for each time point.
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ijerph-11-00919-f002: Mice treated for 3 week with either nicotine or gutkha had elevated serum cotinine levels. Cotinine levels in water-treated control mice were below assay detection limits at all time points evaluated. Data represented as means +/− standard deviation, n = 3 mice/group for each time point.

Mentions: Serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, was measured weekly (i.e., three mice/group, 1 h after treatment) for mice from each of the three treatment groups. Treatment of mice with either nicotine or gutkha yielded elevated serum cotinine levels, averaging ~49 and ~35 ng/mL, respectively, which did not change statistically over the 3 week treatment period (p > 0.05, Figure 2).


Toxicity of gutkha, a smokeless tobacco product gone global: is there more to the toxicity than nicotine?

Willis DN, Popovech MA, Gany F, Hoffman C, Blum JL, Zelikoff JT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2014)

Mice treated for 3 week with either nicotine or gutkha had elevated serum cotinine levels. Cotinine levels in water-treated control mice were below assay detection limits at all time points evaluated. Data represented as means +/− standard deviation, n = 3 mice/group for each time point.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924482&req=5

ijerph-11-00919-f002: Mice treated for 3 week with either nicotine or gutkha had elevated serum cotinine levels. Cotinine levels in water-treated control mice were below assay detection limits at all time points evaluated. Data represented as means +/− standard deviation, n = 3 mice/group for each time point.
Mentions: Serum cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, was measured weekly (i.e., three mice/group, 1 h after treatment) for mice from each of the three treatment groups. Treatment of mice with either nicotine or gutkha yielded elevated serum cotinine levels, averaging ~49 and ~35 ng/mL, respectively, which did not change statistically over the 3 week treatment period (p > 0.05, Figure 2).

Bottom Line: However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products.Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls).As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Environmental Medicine, NYU School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Rd., Tuxedo, NY 10987, USA. Daniel.willis@nyumc.org.

ABSTRACT
The popularity of smokeless tobacco (ST) is growing rapidly and its prevalence of use is rising globally. Consumption of Gutkha, an addictive form of ST, is particularly common amongst South Asian communities throughout the World. This includes within the US, following large-scale immigration into the country. However, there exists a lack of knowledge concerning these alternative tobacco products. To this end, a study was carried out to determine the toxicity of gutkha, and what role, if any, nicotine contributes to the effects. Adult male mice were treated daily for 3-week (5 day/week, once/day), via the oral mucosa, with equal volumes (50 μL) of either sterile water (control), a solution of nicotine dissolved in water (0.24 mg of nicotine), or a solution of lyophilized guthka dissolved in water (21 mg lyophilized gutkha). Serum cotinine, measured weekly, was 36 and 48 ng/mL in gutkha- and nicotine-treated mice, respectively. Results demonstrated that exposure to nicotine and gutkha reduced heart weight, while exposure to gutkha, but not nicotine, decreased liver weight, body weight, and serum testosterone levels (compared to controls). These findings suggest that short-term guhtka use adversely impacts growth and circulating testosterone levels, and that gutkha toxicity may be driven by components other than nicotine. As use of guthka increases worldwide, future studies are needed to further delineate toxicological implications such that appropriate policy decisions can be made.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus