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Mixed impact of firearms restrictions on fatal firearm injuries in males: a national observational study.

Gjertsen F, Leenaars A, Vollrath ME - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: During the past four decades, male accidental firearm death rates were reduced significantly by 90%.Despite the great reduction in male accidental firearm deaths, we were unable to demonstrate effects of the laws.The findings are inconclusive, as they may reflect no true impact or study limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. finn.gjertsen@fhi.no.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Public health organizations have recommended restricted access and safe storage practices as means to reduce firearm injuries and deaths. We aimed to assess the effect of four firearm restrictions on firearm deaths in Norway 1969-2009.

Methods: All deaths due to firearm discharge were included (5,660 deaths, both sexes). The statistical analysis to assess impact of firearm legislations was restricted to males because of the sex disproportionality (94% were males).

Results: A total of 89% of firearm deaths (both sexes) were classified as suicide, 8% as homicide, and 3% as unintentional (accident). During the past four decades, male accidental firearm death rates were reduced significantly by 90%. Male firearms suicide rates increased from 1969 to 1991 by 166%, and decreased by 62% from 1991 to 2009. Despite the great reduction in male accidental firearm deaths, we were unable to demonstrate effects of the laws. In contrast, we found that a 1990 regulation, requiring a police permit before acquiring a shotgun, had a beneficial impact on suicide in the total sample and in those aged 15-34 years. Male firearm homicides decreased post-2003 regulation regarding storing home guard weapons in private homes.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that two laws could have contributed to reduce male firearm mortality. It is, however, a challenge to measure the role of four firearm restrictions. The findings are inconclusive, as they may reflect no true impact or study limitations.

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Related in: MedlinePlus

Observed time trend in unintentional (accidental) firearm deaths among males in Norway 1969–2009 (per 1 million). Different pieces of firearms legislation were implemented in 1986, 1990, 2000, and 2003 (vertical lines).
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ijerph-11-00487-f002: Observed time trend in unintentional (accidental) firearm deaths among males in Norway 1969–2009 (per 1 million). Different pieces of firearms legislation were implemented in 1986, 1990, 2000, and 2003 (vertical lines).

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the time trends in male unintentional firearm deaths. The estimated trend in unintentional firearm mortality among males decreased significantly by 90.3% (95% CI 94.6–82.4; p < 0.001) during the entire period from 1969 to 2009 (Table 4). Figure 3 shows observed trends among males in firearm homicide and non-firearm homicide. The estimated trend in firearm homicides increased significantly by 222.0% (95% CI 73.6–497.5; p < 0.001) from 1969 to 1988, and decreased by 64.1% (95% CI 78.3–40.6; p < 0.001) from 1988 to 2009. Non-firearm homicides showed a similar pattern; they increased by 111.8% (95% CI 47.9–203.3; p < 0.001) from 1969 to 1986, and decreased by 60.8% (95% CI 71.1–46.7; p < 0.001) from 1986 to 2009 (Table 4).


Mixed impact of firearms restrictions on fatal firearm injuries in males: a national observational study.

Gjertsen F, Leenaars A, Vollrath ME - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Observed time trend in unintentional (accidental) firearm deaths among males in Norway 1969–2009 (per 1 million). Different pieces of firearms legislation were implemented in 1986, 1990, 2000, and 2003 (vertical lines).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924456&req=5

ijerph-11-00487-f002: Observed time trend in unintentional (accidental) firearm deaths among males in Norway 1969–2009 (per 1 million). Different pieces of firearms legislation were implemented in 1986, 1990, 2000, and 2003 (vertical lines).
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the time trends in male unintentional firearm deaths. The estimated trend in unintentional firearm mortality among males decreased significantly by 90.3% (95% CI 94.6–82.4; p < 0.001) during the entire period from 1969 to 2009 (Table 4). Figure 3 shows observed trends among males in firearm homicide and non-firearm homicide. The estimated trend in firearm homicides increased significantly by 222.0% (95% CI 73.6–497.5; p < 0.001) from 1969 to 1988, and decreased by 64.1% (95% CI 78.3–40.6; p < 0.001) from 1988 to 2009. Non-firearm homicides showed a similar pattern; they increased by 111.8% (95% CI 47.9–203.3; p < 0.001) from 1969 to 1986, and decreased by 60.8% (95% CI 71.1–46.7; p < 0.001) from 1986 to 2009 (Table 4).

Bottom Line: During the past four decades, male accidental firearm death rates were reduced significantly by 90%.Despite the great reduction in male accidental firearm deaths, we were unable to demonstrate effects of the laws.The findings are inconclusive, as they may reflect no true impact or study limitations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Psychosomatics and Health Behavior, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, 0403 Oslo, Norway. finn.gjertsen@fhi.no.

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Public health organizations have recommended restricted access and safe storage practices as means to reduce firearm injuries and deaths. We aimed to assess the effect of four firearm restrictions on firearm deaths in Norway 1969-2009.

Methods: All deaths due to firearm discharge were included (5,660 deaths, both sexes). The statistical analysis to assess impact of firearm legislations was restricted to males because of the sex disproportionality (94% were males).

Results: A total of 89% of firearm deaths (both sexes) were classified as suicide, 8% as homicide, and 3% as unintentional (accident). During the past four decades, male accidental firearm death rates were reduced significantly by 90%. Male firearms suicide rates increased from 1969 to 1991 by 166%, and decreased by 62% from 1991 to 2009. Despite the great reduction in male accidental firearm deaths, we were unable to demonstrate effects of the laws. In contrast, we found that a 1990 regulation, requiring a police permit before acquiring a shotgun, had a beneficial impact on suicide in the total sample and in those aged 15-34 years. Male firearm homicides decreased post-2003 regulation regarding storing home guard weapons in private homes.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that two laws could have contributed to reduce male firearm mortality. It is, however, a challenge to measure the role of four firearm restrictions. The findings are inconclusive, as they may reflect no true impact or study limitations.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus