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Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

Wang G, Yan X, Zhang F, Zeng C, Gao D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments.The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS.The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. 12121009@bjtu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

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Location of the three roads and sampling sites.
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ijerph-11-00456-f001: Location of the three roads and sampling sites.

Mentions: One hundred samples were collected from 20 sampling sections along three roads as shown in Figure 1 (coordinates: 30°15'0.51" N–36°4'2.24" N, 90°39'13.13" E–100°33'11.95" E; Altitude: 2,771 m–5,000 m a.s.l.) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from July to August 2011. The profiles of the sampling sections are shown in Table 1. The three roads are the #214 national highway (G214) from Xining to Qingshuihe, the #308 provincial highway (S308) from Qingshuihe to Putongquan and the #109 national highway (G109) from Putongquan to Lhasa. G109 is the most important transportation route into the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. G214 is named the most beautiful national highway due to the biodiversity, geological diversity, and landscape diversity along the road. S308 is a link between G214 and G109. Some sections of S308 were damaged in the 2010 Yushu earthquake and have been repaired afterwards. During the sampling time period, traffic observation was implemented by counting the traffic volume for 1 h. Accordingly, the rank of the traffic volumes of the three roads is speculated as G214 > G109 > S208.


Traffic-related trace element accumulation in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China.

Wang G, Yan X, Zhang F, Zeng C, Gao D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Location of the three roads and sampling sites.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924454&req=5

ijerph-11-00456-f001: Location of the three roads and sampling sites.
Mentions: One hundred samples were collected from 20 sampling sections along three roads as shown in Figure 1 (coordinates: 30°15'0.51" N–36°4'2.24" N, 90°39'13.13" E–100°33'11.95" E; Altitude: 2,771 m–5,000 m a.s.l.) on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau from July to August 2011. The profiles of the sampling sections are shown in Table 1. The three roads are the #214 national highway (G214) from Xining to Qingshuihe, the #308 provincial highway (S308) from Qingshuihe to Putongquan and the #109 national highway (G109) from Putongquan to Lhasa. G109 is the most important transportation route into the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. G214 is named the most beautiful national highway due to the biodiversity, geological diversity, and landscape diversity along the road. S308 is a link between G214 and G109. Some sections of S308 were damaged in the 2010 Yushu earthquake and have been repaired afterwards. During the sampling time period, traffic observation was implemented by counting the traffic volume for 1 h. Accordingly, the rank of the traffic volumes of the three roads is speculated as G214 > G109 > S208.

Bottom Line: A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments.The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS.The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MOE Key Laboratory for Urban Transportation Complex Systems Theory and Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China. 12121009@bjtu.edu.cn.

ABSTRACT
This research examines traffic-source trace elements accumulations and distributions in roadside soils and wild grasses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. A total of 100 soil samples and 100 grass samples including Achnatherum splendens, Anaphalis nepalensis, Artemisia sphaerocephala, Carex moorcroftii, Iris lacteal, Kobresia myosuroides, Oreosolen wattii, Oxytropis ochrocephala and Stellera chamaejasme were collected at 100 sites from different road segments. The contents of metals and metalloids, including Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Cr, Co, Ni and As, in the soil and grass samples were analyzed using ICP-MS. The total mean concentrations of the eight trace elements in soils are Cu (22.84 mg/kg), Zn (100.56 mg/kg), Cd (0.28 mg/kg), Pb (28.75 mg/kg), Cr (36.82 mg/kg), Co (10.24 mg/kg), Ni (32.44 mg/kg) and As (21.43 mg/kg), while in grasses are Cu (9.85 mg/kg), Zn (31.47 mg/kg), Cd (0.05 mg/kg), Pb (2.06 mg/kg), Cr (14.16 mg/kg), Co (0.55 mg/kg), Ni (4.03 mg/kg) and As (1.33 mg/kg). The metal and metalloid concentrations in the nine grass species were all below the critical values of hyperaccumulators. The mean values and Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) results indicate that: (1) the concentrations of the trace elements in the soils are higher than those in the grasses, (2) the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb in the soils decrease as the roadside distance increases, (3) the concentrations of trace elements in the grasses are the highest at 10 m from the road edge, (4) the higher the traffic volume, the higher the concentrations of the trace elements in the roadside soils and grasses, and (5) when the land cover is meadow, the lower the sand content in the soil, the lower the trace element concentrations. With a trace element's bioavailability represented by its transfer factor (TF) from the soil to the grass, the TFs of the eight trace elements are not in the same orders for different grass species.

Show MeSH