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Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

Fahrion AS, Jamir L, Richa K, Begum S, Rutsa V, Ao S, Padmakumar VP, Deka RP, Grace D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety.A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system.This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3097, Switzerland. as.fahrion@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

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Situation map of North East India, Nagaland and Kohima, Nagaland’s capital.
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ijerph-11-00403-f001: Situation map of North East India, Nagaland and Kohima, Nagaland’s capital.

Mentions: Very little information is available about the situation in Nagaland, one of the states in the remote North East of India, a region geographically separated from the rest of the country (Figure 1). It is one of the smallest states in India with a geographical area of 16,579 km2. Agriculture (mainly practiced under the slash and burn method in hilly terrain) and livestock rearing (mainly pigs) are the main (90%) livelihood activity for the people of Nagaland followed by handlooms and handicrafts. Unlike the great majority of the Indian population who practice Hinduism, a majority (90%) of the 2 million Naga population is Christian [4]. The geographic, religious and distinct cultural traditions have influenced the food consumption habits of the population; in particular pork plays an important role in the Naga diet and is the meat most consumed [5]. Deka and Thorpe [6] found that pig production in Nagaland is small scale, with low productivity unable to satisfy the increasing local demand for pork. Thus, the market is currently dependent on supply from outside the state. The authors suggested targeted interventions to intensify the sub-sector’s productivity and to facilitate market access for smallscale local producers. One conclusion of the study was that the safety of pork needed improvement because of unhygienic practices and lengthening of the supply chain driven by population growth, urbanization and economic development [6].


Food-safety hazards in the pork chain in Nagaland, North East India: implications for human health.

Fahrion AS, Jamir L, Richa K, Begum S, Rutsa V, Ao S, Padmakumar VP, Deka RP, Grace D - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Situation map of North East India, Nagaland and Kohima, Nagaland’s capital.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924451&req=5

ijerph-11-00403-f001: Situation map of North East India, Nagaland and Kohima, Nagaland’s capital.
Mentions: Very little information is available about the situation in Nagaland, one of the states in the remote North East of India, a region geographically separated from the rest of the country (Figure 1). It is one of the smallest states in India with a geographical area of 16,579 km2. Agriculture (mainly practiced under the slash and burn method in hilly terrain) and livestock rearing (mainly pigs) are the main (90%) livelihood activity for the people of Nagaland followed by handlooms and handicrafts. Unlike the great majority of the Indian population who practice Hinduism, a majority (90%) of the 2 million Naga population is Christian [4]. The geographic, religious and distinct cultural traditions have influenced the food consumption habits of the population; in particular pork plays an important role in the Naga diet and is the meat most consumed [5]. Deka and Thorpe [6] found that pig production in Nagaland is small scale, with low productivity unable to satisfy the increasing local demand for pork. Thus, the market is currently dependent on supply from outside the state. The authors suggested targeted interventions to intensify the sub-sector’s productivity and to facilitate market access for smallscale local producers. One conclusion of the study was that the safety of pork needed improvement because of unhygienic practices and lengthening of the supply chain driven by population growth, urbanization and economic development [6].

Bottom Line: The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety.A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system.This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Veterinary Public Health Institute, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Bern, Bern 3097, Switzerland. as.fahrion@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Pork occupies an important place in the diet of the population of Nagaland, one of the North East Indian states. We carried out a pilot study along the pork meat production chain, from live animal to end consumer. The goal was to obtain information about the presence of selected food borne hazards in pork in order to assess the risk deriving from these hazards to the health of the local consumers and make recommendations for improving food safety. A secondary objective was to evaluate the utility of risk-based approaches to food safety in an informal food system. We investigated samples from pigs and pork sourced at slaughter in urban and rural environments, and at retail, to assess a selection of food-borne hazards. In addition, consumer exposure was characterized using information about hygiene and practices related to handling and preparing pork. A qualitative hazard characterization, exposure assessment and hazard characterization for three representative hazards or hazard proxies, namely Enterobacteriaceae, T. solium cysticercosis and antibiotic residues, is presented. Several important potential food-borne pathogens are reported for the first time including Listeria spp. and Brucella suis. This descriptive pilot study is the first risk-based assessment of food safety in Nagaland. We also characterise possible interventions to be addressed by policy makers, and supply data to inform future risk assessments.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus