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Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

Chang MW, Lee CR, Hung HF, Teng KS, Huang H, Chuang CY - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia.Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM.It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu City 30013, Taiwan. cychuang@mx.nthu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

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A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells of bronchial epithelial cells are exposed to bioaerosol allergens. The activation of IL-6 further recruits the inflammatory cells, and consequently programs epithelial cells to healing or remodeling. In addition, TGF-β1 activates EGFR phosphorylation and increases p21WAF1/CIP1 expression that implicates airway remodeling due to irregular cell proliferation and prolonged repair duration. The unchanged MMP-9 expression might be compensated for the over-expression of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Consequently, both the atopy reaction and ligand induced activation of EGFR signaling cascade are to tend toward to guide cells healing or remodeling.
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ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells of bronchial epithelial cells are exposed to bioaerosol allergens. The activation of IL-6 further recruits the inflammatory cells, and consequently programs epithelial cells to healing or remodeling. In addition, TGF-β1 activates EGFR phosphorylation and increases p21WAF1/CIP1 expression that implicates airway remodeling due to irregular cell proliferation and prolonged repair duration. The unchanged MMP-9 expression might be compensated for the over-expression of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Consequently, both the atopy reaction and ligand induced activation of EGFR signaling cascade are to tend toward to guide cells healing or remodeling.

Mentions: This study observed that the expression of remodeling genes, including TGF-β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and EGFR was upregulated after exposure to field-sampled bioaerosols. The possible mechanism of airway remodeling response of genes to bioaerosols from the composting hall is illustrated in Figure 5. Importantly, MMP-9 regulation might be a crucial factor for programmed epithelial cell healing or remodeling, which relies on the upstream signaling pathway of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Additionally, this study investigated the distribution of microorganisms in the composting hall, maintenance area, and restaurant of a composting plant. The results showed that both the composting hall and maintenance area contained an abundance of mesophilic bacteria (62% and 50%, respectively). The current study observed the endotoxin concentrations of airborne coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) presented per mg were higher than those of fine particles (0.25–2.5 μm), irrespective of the indoor or outdoor location of the composting hall. Inside the composting hall, the levels of airborne endotoxins were higher in particulate matters between 2.5 and 10 μm (coarse) than they were in fine particles. By contrast, NCI-H292 cells treated with standard A. fumigatus showed no prominent change of gene expression. A. fumigatus is ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor environments, and is often measured as an assessment criterion for the health condition of workers and the surrounding neighborhood.


Bioaerosols from a food waste composting plant affect human airway epithelial cell remodeling genes.

Chang MW, Lee CR, Hung HF, Teng KS, Huang H, Chuang CY - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells of bronchial epithelial cells are exposed to bioaerosol allergens. The activation of IL-6 further recruits the inflammatory cells, and consequently programs epithelial cells to healing or remodeling. In addition, TGF-β1 activates EGFR phosphorylation and increases p21WAF1/CIP1 expression that implicates airway remodeling due to irregular cell proliferation and prolonged repair duration. The unchanged MMP-9 expression might be compensated for the over-expression of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Consequently, both the atopy reaction and ligand induced activation of EGFR signaling cascade are to tend toward to guide cells healing or remodeling.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924447&req=5

ijerph-11-00337-f005: A possible mechanism of airway remodeling genes in response to bioaersol exposure in the composting hall. The atopic inflammation is triggered when innate immune cells of bronchial epithelial cells are exposed to bioaerosol allergens. The activation of IL-6 further recruits the inflammatory cells, and consequently programs epithelial cells to healing or remodeling. In addition, TGF-β1 activates EGFR phosphorylation and increases p21WAF1/CIP1 expression that implicates airway remodeling due to irregular cell proliferation and prolonged repair duration. The unchanged MMP-9 expression might be compensated for the over-expression of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Consequently, both the atopy reaction and ligand induced activation of EGFR signaling cascade are to tend toward to guide cells healing or remodeling.
Mentions: This study observed that the expression of remodeling genes, including TGF-β, p21WAF1/CIP1 and EGFR was upregulated after exposure to field-sampled bioaerosols. The possible mechanism of airway remodeling response of genes to bioaerosols from the composting hall is illustrated in Figure 5. Importantly, MMP-9 regulation might be a crucial factor for programmed epithelial cell healing or remodeling, which relies on the upstream signaling pathway of STAT-3 and cyclin D-dependent kinase. Additionally, this study investigated the distribution of microorganisms in the composting hall, maintenance area, and restaurant of a composting plant. The results showed that both the composting hall and maintenance area contained an abundance of mesophilic bacteria (62% and 50%, respectively). The current study observed the endotoxin concentrations of airborne coarse particles (2.5–10 μm) presented per mg were higher than those of fine particles (0.25–2.5 μm), irrespective of the indoor or outdoor location of the composting hall. Inside the composting hall, the levels of airborne endotoxins were higher in particulate matters between 2.5 and 10 μm (coarse) than they were in fine particles. By contrast, NCI-H292 cells treated with standard A. fumigatus showed no prominent change of gene expression. A. fumigatus is ubiquitous in both indoor and outdoor environments, and is often measured as an assessment criterion for the health condition of workers and the surrounding neighborhood.

Bottom Line: The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia.Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM.It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, No. 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsinchu City 30013, Taiwan. cychuang@mx.nthu.edu.tw.

ABSTRACT
The composting procedure in food waste plants generates airborne bioaerosols that have the potential to damage human airway epithelial cells. Persistent inflammation and repair responses induce airway remodeling and damage to the respiratory system. This study elucidated the expression changes of airway remodeling genes in human lung mucoepidermoid NCI-H292 cells exposed to bioaerosols from a composting plant. Different types of microorganisms were detectable in the composting plant, using the agar culture method. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the level of Aspergillus fumigatus and the profile of remodeling genes. The real-time PCR results indicated that the amount of A. fumigatus in the composting hall was less than 10(2) conidia. The endotoxins in the field bioaerosols were determined using a limulus amebocyte lysate test. The endotoxin levels depended on the type of particulate matter (PM), with coarse particles (2.5-10 μm) having higher endotoxin levels than did fine particles (0.5-2.5 μm). After exposure to the conditioned medium of field bioaerosol samples, NCI-H292 cells showed increased pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 release and activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1 (p21 WAF1/CIP1) gene expression, but not of matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9. Airborne endotoxin levels were higher inside the composting hall than they were in other areas, and they were associated with PM. This suggested that airborne bioaerosols in the composting plant contained endotoxins and microorganisms besides A. fumigatus that cause the inflammatory cytokine secretion and augment the expression of remodeling genes in NCI-H292 cells. It is thus necessary to monitor potentially hazardous materials from bioaerosols in food composting plants, which could affect the health of workers.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus