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Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects.For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J.Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Rosalie.Caruso@RoswellPark.org.

ABSTRACT
Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

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Adjusted mean metal concentration (μg·g−1 tobacco) by manufacturer.
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ijerph-11-00202-f002: Adjusted mean metal concentration (μg·g−1 tobacco) by manufacturer.

Mentions: Table 4 presents multivariate analyses controlling for product menthol status, Light/Mild labeling, per-cigarette tobacco weight, and moisture. Significant overall manufacturer differences were noted for Cd [Wald χ2 (2) =6.977, p = 0.031], Cr [Wald χ2 (2) = 37.849, p < 0.001], and Ni [Wald χ2 (2) = 59.388, p < 0.001]. Figure 2 illustrates the adjusted means by manufacturer. For Cd, post-hoc tests did not show pairwise differences between manufacturer groups (p’s >0.10). For Cr, RJR brands differed from OM brands (p = 0.02), and much more variety was seen in metal concentration for all brands. For Ni, we saw significant pairwise differences between PMUSA and RJR brands (p < 0.001), PMUSA and OM brands (p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (p = 0.006). Across manufacturers, product moisture was positively associated with Cr content (p = 0.004), and negatively associated with As content (p < 0.001). Light/Mild brands appeared to contain significantly less Ni than brands not so labeled (2.49 μg·g−1vs. 2.09 μg·g−1, p = 0.02).


Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Adjusted mean metal concentration (μg·g−1 tobacco) by manufacturer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924441&req=5

ijerph-11-00202-f002: Adjusted mean metal concentration (μg·g−1 tobacco) by manufacturer.
Mentions: Table 4 presents multivariate analyses controlling for product menthol status, Light/Mild labeling, per-cigarette tobacco weight, and moisture. Significant overall manufacturer differences were noted for Cd [Wald χ2 (2) =6.977, p = 0.031], Cr [Wald χ2 (2) = 37.849, p < 0.001], and Ni [Wald χ2 (2) = 59.388, p < 0.001]. Figure 2 illustrates the adjusted means by manufacturer. For Cd, post-hoc tests did not show pairwise differences between manufacturer groups (p’s >0.10). For Cr, RJR brands differed from OM brands (p = 0.02), and much more variety was seen in metal concentration for all brands. For Ni, we saw significant pairwise differences between PMUSA and RJR brands (p < 0.001), PMUSA and OM brands (p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (p = 0.006). Across manufacturers, product moisture was positively associated with Cr content (p = 0.004), and negatively associated with As content (p < 0.001). Light/Mild brands appeared to contain significantly less Ni than brands not so labeled (2.49 μg·g−1vs. 2.09 μg·g−1, p = 0.02).

Bottom Line: Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects.For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J.Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Rosalie.Caruso@RoswellPark.org.

ABSTRACT
Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus