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Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Bottom Line: Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects.For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J.Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Rosalie.Caruso@RoswellPark.org.

ABSTRACT
Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

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Boxplots of metal concentrations by manufacturer.
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ijerph-11-00202-f001: Boxplots of metal concentrations by manufacturer.

Mentions: On average, cigarettes contained 0.62 g tobacco (dry weight; SD 0.08, range 0.42–1.01 g) and had a moisture level of 15.0% (SD 1.1, range 11.8–18.2 g). Table 1 presents the mean, standard deviation, and range of each metal across the sample in micrograms per gram tobacco. Overall, metal concentrations were only weakly intercorrelated (Table 2). Nickel and chromium concentrations were highly related (r = 0.60), but additional significant metal correlations were weak. When stratified by manufacturer, similar correlation trends were found, with nickel and chromium being significantly correlated for each Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds and Other brands (r = 0.52, 0.546, and 0.565, respectively). Figure 1 presents box plots for metal contents by manufacturer, broken into 3 groups (Philip Morris USA (N = 112), RJ Reynolds (n = 112), Other Manufacturers (N = 87)). The Other Manufacturers group included Liggett Group (N = 16), Commonwealth Brands Inc. (N = 13), Lorillard (N = 11) and 20 other companies that each individually contributed less than 2% of the sample size. It can be seen that several samples fall outside 1.5 times the interquartile range. For example, sample 144 had extremely high levels of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb (but not Ni). Outliers can be identified in Table 3.


Toxic metal concentrations in cigarettes obtained from U.S. smokers in 2009: results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States survey cohort.

Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT - Int J Environ Res Public Health (2013)

Boxplots of metal concentrations by manufacturer.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC3924441&req=5

ijerph-11-00202-f001: Boxplots of metal concentrations by manufacturer.
Mentions: On average, cigarettes contained 0.62 g tobacco (dry weight; SD 0.08, range 0.42–1.01 g) and had a moisture level of 15.0% (SD 1.1, range 11.8–18.2 g). Table 1 presents the mean, standard deviation, and range of each metal across the sample in micrograms per gram tobacco. Overall, metal concentrations were only weakly intercorrelated (Table 2). Nickel and chromium concentrations were highly related (r = 0.60), but additional significant metal correlations were weak. When stratified by manufacturer, similar correlation trends were found, with nickel and chromium being significantly correlated for each Philip Morris, R.J. Reynolds and Other brands (r = 0.52, 0.546, and 0.565, respectively). Figure 1 presents box plots for metal contents by manufacturer, broken into 3 groups (Philip Morris USA (N = 112), RJ Reynolds (n = 112), Other Manufacturers (N = 87)). The Other Manufacturers group included Liggett Group (N = 16), Commonwealth Brands Inc. (N = 13), Lorillard (N = 11) and 20 other companies that each individually contributed less than 2% of the sample size. It can be seen that several samples fall outside 1.5 times the interquartile range. For example, sample 144 had extremely high levels of As, Cd, Cr, and Pb (but not Ni). Outliers can be identified in Table 3.

Bottom Line: Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects.For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J.Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA. Rosalie.Caruso@RoswellPark.org.

ABSTRACT
Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus